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  • 17-March-2020

    English

    SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 - Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), which provide a wide range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the third edition in this series, following assessments in 2012 and 2016. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of play in the implementation of the ten SBA principles, and monitors progress made since 2016. It also identifies remaining challenges affecting SMEs in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries and provides recommendations to address them based on EU and international good practice examples. The 2020 edition also features a novelty: An assessment of three new dimensions going beyond core SME policy (competition, contract enforcement and business integrity) looking at key structural reform priorities that are critical to establishing a level playing field for enterprises of all sizes and ownership types.
  • 16-March-2020

    English

    Green Budgeting – A Compass for achieving our environmental goals Paris Collaborative on Green Budgeting & Coalition of Finance Ministers for Climate Action

    The OECD Paris Collaborative on Green Budgeting was launched at the One Planet Summit in December 2017 to provide a platform to share experiences and good practices on how best to integrate climate and broader environmental goals with the budget process.

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  • 16-March-2020

    English

    Gender and environmental statistics

    There is growing recognition of the need for a gender lens to understand the impact of environmental factors on well-being.

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  • 13-March-2020

    English

    EU4Environment

    The “European Union for Environment” Action aims to help six Eastern partner countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, preserve their natural capital and increase people's environmental well-being, and is structured around five topics: Greener decision-making; Circular economy and new growth opportunities; Environmental level playing field; Ecosystem services and livelihoods...

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  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Policies, regulatory framework and enforcement for air quality management: The case of Korea - Environment Working Paper

    During past years, Korea figured among the OECD countries with the highest share of population exposed to excessive PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres) concentrations and PM2.5 concentration level in Seoul is about two times higher than the WHO’s guidelines or the levels of other major cities in developed countries.

  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Policies, regulatory framework and enforcement for air quality management: The case of China - Environment Working Paper

    Four decades of rapid economic expansion in China has generated enormous pressure on the environment, natural resources and public health. Alarming smog outbreaks during the 2010-13 period prompted the government to introduce a number of reforms to control air pollution, including a re-organisation of environmental institutions, improving the coordination and integrity of enforcement actions across levels of government...

  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Policies, regulatory framework and enforcement for air quality management: The case of Japan - Environment Working Paper

    The pollution intensity of the Japanese economy, measured as emissions per dollar of GDP, is among the lowest within OECD countries. However, air pollution remains a significant issue. Almost 80% of the Japanese residents were exposed to an annual concentration of PM2.5 above the WHO guideline while the attainment rate of the domestic air quality standard for photochemical oxidants is below 1%.

  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Managing the biodiversity impacts of fertiliser and pesticide use - Trends and policies across selected OECD countries - Environment Working Paper

    This paper reviews the impacts and costs of pesticide and fertiliser pollution as well as the policy responses to counter these in selected OECD countries. More specifically, the paper begins with an overview of the main biodiversity and health impacts of excess pesticide and fertiliser. In economic terms, nitrogen pollution, for example, has been estimated to cost the European Union between EUR 70 billion and EUR 320 billion per year.

  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Policies, regulatory framework and enforcement for air quality management: The case of Korea

    During past years, Korea figured among the OECD countries with the highest share of population exposed to excessive PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres) concentrations and PM2.5 concentration level in Seoul is about two times higher than the WHO’s guidelines or the levels of other major cities in developed countries. A number of countermeasures have been recently introduced to address such challenges, including a tightening of air quality standards and increasing local inspection and enforcement capacity. This paper reviews these recent reforms, and discusses possible further improvements. This paper complements two case studies on air quality policies in China and Japan, and a third case study on international regulatory co-operation on air quality in North America, Europe and North-East Asia.
  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Policies, regulatory framework and enforcement for air quality management: The case of Japan

    The pollution intensity of the Japanese economy, measured as emissions per dollar of GDP, is among the lowest within OECD countries. However, air pollution remains a significant issue. Almost 80% of the Japanese residents were exposed to an annual concentration of PM2.5 above the WHO guideline while the attainment rate of the domestic air quality standard for photochemical oxidants is below 1%. The analysis of the regulatory and enforcement framework for air quality management in Japan identifies best practises and key remaining challenges, including a limited understanding of the generation mechanism of ozone pollution and the need to strengthen cooperation among Prefectures. This paper complements two case studies on air quality policies in China and Korea, and a third case study on international regulatory cooperation on air quality in North America, Europe and North-East Asia.
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