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For many businesses, declining ecosystem services can pose real risks to their continued profitability. This has motivated some to adopt innovative internal biodiversity policies and engage in a range of activities that conserve biodiversity and improve ecosystem functioning.
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Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is increasingly recognised as a policy approach that can make a key contribution to green growth and the challenges that are posed by sustained global economic and demogarphic growth.
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This report focuses on four key policy issues: life-cycle externalities, trade policy impacts, material substitution and hazardous waste policies, and used and end-of-life mobile device management. Across these key policy issues, this report has identified the following observations relating to sustainable materials management.
The eleventh meeting of the Convention on Biological Diversity was held in Hyderabad, India (COP11, from 8 to 19 October 2012).
It is increasingly common to include estimates of value of statistical life (VSL) in analyses of proposed policies that affect people’s mortality risks.
Developing effective policies to reduce illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods requires a clear understanding of what drives this trade and the circumstances under which it thrives, says this report.
This Test Guideline lists methods for determining the density of liquids and solids, giving only a succinct description of them. The density of a substance is the quotient of its mass and its volume and is expressed in SI units as kg/m3 at a specified temperature. Several methods are for liquid substance only: hydrometer, immersed body method (both are buoyancy methods) and oscillating densitometer. These methods are applicable to liquids with a dynamic viscosity below 5 Pa.s for hydrometer and oscillating densitometer and below 20 Pa.s for immersed body method. The method for solids only is the air comparison pycnometer, and pour and tap. The methods for both liquids and solids are the hydrostatic balance (a buoyancy method) and the pycnometer. The dynamic viscosity of liquids to be investigated should not exceed 5 Pa.s for the hydrostatic balance, and should not be above 500 Pa.s for the pycnometer.
This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the necessary controls, including a carrier control if necessary. For the fathead minnow, four replicate test vessels are used for each treatment level and control(s). During the conduct of the assay, the egg production is measured quantitatively daily in each test vessel. At termination of the 21-day exposure period, two biomarker endpoints are measured in males and females separately, as indicators of endocrine activity of the test chemical; these endpoints are vitellogenin and secondary sexual characteristics. Gonads of both sexes are also preserved and histopathology may be evaluated to assess the reproductive fitness of the test animals and to add to the weight of evidence of other endpoints.
Organised jointly by the OECD and the IEA, this seminar held on 26-27 September 2012 aimed to promote dialogue and enhance understanding between a wide range of countries on technical issues in the international climate change negotiations. This seminar was an informal meeting outside of the UNFCCC negotiations and discussions are non-attributed.