During the last few years OECD countries have witnessed an increased awareness on the part of firms of the potential to realise certain commercial objectives through improved environmental performance.
Expert Workshop on Climate Resilience and Economic Growth in Developing Countries, 24 April 2013
The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application across jurisdictions.
This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.
China’s exceptional economic expansion has led to rising energy demand and pollution as well as other environmental pressures. Strong efforts by the government have moderated emissions of some types of air and water pollution from high levels but others, including greenhouse gas emissions, continue to rise. Poor air and water quality threaten human health, create other costs and reduce well-being.
Since 1997, the Netherlands has had a tax allowance scheme that was introduced to promote investments in energy-saving technologies and sustainable energy production. This so-called Energy Investment Tax Allowance (EIA in Dutch) reduces up-front investment costs for firms investing in the newest energy-saving and sustainable energy technologies.
Since the first OECD country published its national adaptation strategy in 2005, there has been a marked increase in national planning for climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of national adaptation planning activity across OECD countries and identifies some of the emerging lessons that have been learnt from their experiences.
Environmental biotechnology is focused on clean-up and much of the policy in this area is around compliance, whereas industrial biotech has quite different policy objectives and only started to grow as a field with the worldwide interest in biofuels. Much of the world now has targets for bioenergy and favourable policy regimes to stimulate production and use of biofuels, but sustainability has become a real issue.
To benefit fully from cross-border trade in electricity, interconnected countries need to establish a non-discriminatory trading regime based on co-operation and co-ordination, says this study of trade in renewables-based electric power in Europe.
The European Union may be facing some difficult economic challenges, but that's no excuse for not acting now to create an economy based on resource efficiency and low-carbon development. The benefits are potentially enormous, including lower greenhouse gas emissions, more efficient use of energy and resources and rising growth and innovation.
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Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development, Summary for Policy makers