Publications & Documents


  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 490: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests Using the Thymidine Kinase Gene

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. This TG includes two distinct in vitro mammalian gene mutation assays requiring two specific tk heterozygous cells lines: L5178Y tk+/-3.7.2C cells for the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and TK6 tk+/- cells for the TK6 assay. Genetic events detected using the tk locus include both gene mutations and chromosomal events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

  • 27-July-2015

    English

    Green patents

    Far-reaching innovation is needed to address climate change and other environmental challenges, and to accelerate the transition to green growth. To measure the output of environmental innovation, the OECD published a new set of green patent indicators in March 2015.

  • 27-July-2015

    English

    Towards Green Growth? - Tracking Progress

    The 2011 Green Growth Strategy provided initial guidance to governments on how to achieve economic growth and development, while preventing costly environmental damage and inefficient resource use. What progress have countries made in aligning economic and environmental priorities since 2011? This report attempts to evaluate this progress and highlight where there is broad scope to heighten the ambition and effectiveness of green growth policy. It draws lessons from green growth mainstreaming across the OECD’s work programme, notably in terms of how governments can maximise institutional settings to seize economic opportunities surrounding the transition to a green economy, and considers ways to enrich the Green Growth Strategy based on work undertaken since its launch.

  • 27-July-2015

    English

    Webinar: Towards Green Growth? Official Launch of the OECD's Tracking Progress Report

    On July 27, 2015 from 15:00 to 16:30 Paris time, the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) hosted a webinar to launch the OECD's new report titled "Towards Green Growth? Tracking Progress". Featuring Carlo Carraro, Catherine L. Mann, Nathalie Girouard and Kevin Urama; this webinar will explore the advances made since the launch of the OECD's green growth strategy in 2011.

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  • 23-July-2015

    English

    EaP GREEN: Greening economies in the European Union’s Eastern Partnership countries

    Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood” (EaP GREEN) programme is being implemented by OECD in co-operation with UNECE, UNEP, and UNIDO to assist the European Union’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries in their transition to green economies. Read the latest news and upcoming events.

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  • 22-July-2015

    English

    Financing climate change action

    Limiting climate change to 2°C requires a major shift in investment patterns towards low-carbon, climate resilient options. Empirical evidence gathered in the report "Overcoming barriers to international investment in clean energy" shows that LCRs have hindered international investment across the solar PV and wind-energy value chains, by increasing the cost of inputs for downstream activities.

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  • 22-July-2015

    English

    Mobilising investment opportunities in clean energy infrastructure

    Investments in clean energy infrastructure need to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.

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  • 21-July-2015

    English

    Adaptation to climate change

    OECD work on adaptation to climate change focus on two main areas: (1) adpatation policies and economics and (2) Adaptation and development co-operation. The latest report "Climate Change Risks and Adaptation" proposes an iterative process for managing the risks from climate change, gives an overview of costs and benefits of adaptation at the national and regional scale and discusses adaptation finance in OECD countries.

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  • 20-July-2015

    English

    Spatial Planning INstruments and the Environment (SPINE)

    This work consists of a series of spatially explicit empirical analyses of the relationships between land use patterns, socioeconomic outcomes, environmental pressures, and the use of specific policy instruments.

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  • 20-July-2015

    English

    Behavioural and Experimental Economics for Environmental Policy (BEEP)

    This project investigates how behavioural economics can inform the design of “norm-based” environmental policies and “behaviourally robust” markets for ecosystem services. This work is part of a broader effort of a project that seeks to identify areas where behavioural economics can have the greatest impact on environmental policy design. The BEEP database is now available.

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