Publications & Documents


  • 18-October-2017

    English

    Costs of Inaction and Resource scarcity: Consequences for Long-term Economic growth (CIRCLE)

    This project identifies how feedbacks from poor environmental quality, climatic change and natural resource scarcity may affect economic growth in the coming decades. CIRCLE has generated quantitative projections for economic growth which reflect the costs of policy inaction on climate change, outdoor air pollution and other environmental issues. These reference projections improve OECD projections of "baseline" economic growth.

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  • 17-October-2017

    English

    Groundwater Allocation - Managing Growing Pressures on Quantity and Quality

    Groundwater allocation determines who is able to use groundwater resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from groundwater, today and in the future. Building on the 2015 OECD publication Water Resources Allocation: Sharing Risks and Opportunities, this report focuses on groundwater and how its allocation can be improved in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness and social equity. Drawing on an analysis of groundwater’s distinctive features and nine case studies of groundwater allocation in a range of countries, the report provides practical policy guidance for groundwater allocation in the form of a "health check". This health check can be used to assess the performance of current arrangements and manage the transition towards improved allocation.

  • 16-October-2017

    English

    EU Water Initiative (EUWI): Water Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA)

    The objective of the European Union Water Initiative is to create the conditions for mobilising all available EU resources (human & financial), and to co-ordinate them to achieve the water-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in partner countries. This initiative was launched at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002.

  • 12-October-2017

    English

    Financing climate change action

    Limiting climate change to well below 2°C requires a major shift in investment patterns towards low-carbon, climate resilient options. To achieve this goal requires policies that involve unprecedented economic, social and technological transformation, as economies shift towards low-carbon and climate-resilient infrastructure investments. On 26-27 June, Workshop on Key Institutions for Mobilising Finance in Mexico City.

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  • 11-October-2017

    English

    Private climate finance: Research Collaborative

    The Research Collaborative conducts and co-ordinates work to develop methods for estimating private finance mobilised by public interventions for climate action in developing countries. Recent publications test methodologies for estimating the effect of capacity building and policies, while also building upon methodologies for measuring mobilisation by public finance. Find out more about the current work plan on the dedicated website.

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  • 10-October-2017

    English

    Mobilising investment in clean energy infrastructure

    Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.

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  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)

    This Test Guideline describes a chronic oral toxicity test on adult worker honey bees under laboratory conditions over an exposure period of 10 days.

    Young bees (max. 2 days old) are exposed to 50 % (w/v) aqueous sucrose solution containing the test chemical by continuous and ad libitum feeding over a period of 10 days. Mortality and behavioural abnormalities are observed and recorded daily during the 10 day test period. The chronic effects of the test chemical are evaluated by comparing the results of the test chemical treated group to those of the respective control group. The test is designed for the determination of the following endpoints  LC50 (median Lethal Concentration) and the LDD50 (median Lethal Dietary Dose) values after 10 days of exposure, and NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) and NOEDD (No Observed Effect Dietary Dose).

     

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 433: Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Fixed Concentration Procedure

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test chemical by inhalation.

    It is a principle of the method that only moderately toxic concentrations are used so that ‘evident toxicity’, rather than death/moribundity is used as an endpoint, and concentrations that are expected to be lethal are avoided.

    Groups of animals of a single sex are exposed for a short period of time to the test chemical in a stepwise procedure using the appropriate fixed concentrations for vapours, dusts/mists (aerosols) or gases.  Further groups of animals may be tested at higher concentrations in the absence of signs of evident toxicity or mortality at lower concentrations. This procedure continues until the concentration causing evident toxicity or no more than one death/ moribund animal is identified, or when no effects are seen at the highest concentration or when deaths/ moribundity occur at the lowest concentration.  A total of five animals of one sex will normally be used for each concentration level investigated. The results of this study include: measurements (weighing at least weekly) and daily detailed observations, as well as gross necropsy. The method provides information on the hazardous properties and allows the substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

     

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 244: Protozoan Activated Sludge Inhibition Test

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess effects of a test chemical on the phagocytotic activity of activated sludge containing protozoan organisms under defined conditions in the presence of different concentrations of the test chemical. The principle of biological sewage-treatment plants (STP) is to transform the organic matter of incoming waste-water in microbial biomass, which in turn is separated from the liquid yielding a purified effluent. The purpose of the test is to provide a means to record effects of test chemicals on ciliated protozoa in sewage treatment plants, which due to their grazing on bacteria considerably contribute to the functioning of STPs.
  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 492: Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method for identifying chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure allowing the identification of chemicals (substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage in accordance with UN GHS. It makes use of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE) which closely mimics the histological, morphological, biochemical and physiological properties of the human corneal epithelium. The test evaluates the ability of a test chemical to induce cytotoxicity in a RhCE tissue construct, as measured by the MTT assay. Coloured chemicals can also be tested by used of an HPLC procedure. RhCE tissue viability following exposure to a test chemical is measured by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT by the viable cells of the tissue into a blue MTT formazan salt that is quantitatively measured after extraction from tissues. The viability of the RhCE tissue is determined in comparison to tissues treated with the negative control substance (% viability), and is then used to predict the eye hazard potential of the test chemical. Chemicals not requiring classification and labelling according to UN GHS are identified as those that do not decrease tissue viability below a defined threshold (i.e., tissue viability > 60%, for UN GHS No Category).

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