Publications & Documents


  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 421: Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test

    This screening Test Guideline describes the effects of a test chemical on male and female reproductive performance. It has been updated with endocrine disruptor endpoints, in particular measure of anogenital distance and male nipple retention in pups and thyroid examination.

    The test substance is administered in graduated doses to several groups of males and females. Males should be dosed for a minimum of four weeks. Females should be dosed throughout the study, so approximately 63 days. Matings "one male to one female" should normally be used in this study. This Test Guideline is designed for use with the rat. It is recommended that each group be started with at least 10 animals of each sex. Generally, at least three test groups and a control group should be used. Dose levels may be based on information from acute toxicity tests or on results from repeated dose studies. The test substance is administered orally and daily. The results of this study include clinical observations, body weight and food/water consumption, oestrous cycle monitoring, offspring parameters observation/measurement, thyroid hormone measurement, as well as gross necropsy and histopathology. The findings of this toxicity study should be evaluated in terms of the observed effects, necropsy and microscopic findings. Because of the short period of treatment of the male, the histopathology of the testis and epididymus should be considered along with the fertility data, when assessing male reproductive effects.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 478: Rodent Dominant Lethal Test

    The purpose of the Dominant lethal (DL) test is to investigate whether chemical agents produce mutations resulting from chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. In addition, the dominant lethal test is relevant to assessing genotoxicity because, although they may vary among species, factors of in vivo metabolism, pharmacokinetics and DNA-repair processes are active and contribute to the response. Induction of a DL mutation after exposure to a test chemical indicates that the chemical has affected germinal tissue of the test animal.

    This modified version of the Test Guideline reflects more than thirty years of experience with this test and the potential for integrating or combining this test with other toxicity tests such as developmental, reproductive toxicity, or genotoxicity studies; however due to its limitations and the use of a large number of animals this assay is not intended for use as a primary method, but rather as a supplemental test method which can only be used when there is no alternative for regulatory requirements.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 435: In Vitro Membrane Barrier Test Method for Skin Corrosion

    This updated Test Guideline 435 provides an in vitro membrane barrier test method that can be used to identify corrosive chemicals. The test method utilizes an artificial membrane designed to respond to corrosive chemicals in a manner similar to animal skin in situ.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 240: Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    This Test Guideline describes the Medaka Extended One Generation Test (MEOGRT), which exposes fish over multiple generations to give data relevant to ecological hazard and risk assessment of chemicals, including suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).  Exposure in the MEOGRT starts with spawning fish (P or F0 generation) and continues until hatching (until two weeks post fertilization, wpf) in the second (F2) generation. This Test Guideline measures several biological endpoints.  Primary emphasis is given to potential adverse effects on population relevant parameters including survival, gross development, growth and reproduction (fecundity).  Secondarily, in order to provide mechanistic information and provide linkage between results from other kinds of field and laboratory studies, where there is a posteriori evidence for a chemical having potential endocrine disrupter activity (e.g. androgenic or oestrogenic activity in other tests and assays) then other useful information is obtained by measuring vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA (or vitellogenin protein, VTG), phenotypic secondary sex characteristics (SSC) as related to genetic sex, and evaluating histopathology.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 439: In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure that may be used for the hazard identification of irritant chemicals (substances and mixtures) in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) Category 2.  It is based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), which in its overall design closely mimics the biochemical and physiological properties of the upper parts of the human skin. Cell viability is measured by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT into a blue formazan salt that is quantitatively measured after extraction from tissues. Irritant test substances are identified by their ability to decrease cell viability below defined threshold levels (below or equal to 50% for UN GHS Category 2). Coloured chemicals can also be tested by used of an HPLC procedure. There are three validated test methods that adhere to this Test Guideline. Depending on the regulatory framework and the classification system in use, this procedure may be used to determine the skin irritancy of test substances as a stand-alone replacement test for in vivo skin irritation testing, or as a partial replacement test, within a tiered testing strategy.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 404: Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to liquid or solid test substance by dermal application. This Test Guideline recommends sequential testing strategies, which include the performance of validated and accepted in vitro or ex vivo tests for corrosion/irritation.

    The albino rabbit is the preferable laboratory animal. The substance to be tested is applied in a single dose to a small area of skin (approximately 6cm²) of an experimental animal; untreated skin areas of the test animal serve as the control. The exposure period is 4 hours. Residual test substance should then be removed. The dose is 0.5ml (liquid) or 0.5g (solid) applied to the test site. The method consists of two tests: the initial test and the confirmatory test (used only if a corrosive effect is not observed in the initial test). All animals should be examined for signs of erythema and oedema during 14 days. The dermal irritation scores should be evaluated in conjunction with the nature and severity of lesions, and their reversibility or lack of reversibility. When responses persist to the end of the 14-day observation period, the test substance should be considered an irritant.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 490: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests Using the Thymidine Kinase Gene

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. This TG includes two distinct in vitro mammalian gene mutation assays requiring two specific tk heterozygous cells lines: L5178Y tk+/-3.7.2C cells for the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and TK6 tk+/- cells for the TK6 assay. Genetic events detected using the tk locus include both gene mutations and chromosomal events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 430: In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance Test Method (TER)

    This Test Guideline addresses the human health endpoint skin corrosion. It is based on the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) test method, which utilizes skin discs to identify corrosives by their ability to produce a loss of normal stratum corneum integrity and barrier function. This Test Guideline was originally adopted in 2004 and updated in 2015 to refer to the IATA guidance document.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 492: Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method for identifying chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure allowing the identification of chemicals (substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage in accordance with UN GHS. It makes use of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE) which closely mimics the histological, morphological, biochemical and physiological properties of the human corneal epithelium. The test evaluates the ability of a test chemical to induce cytotoxicity in a RhCE tissue construct, as measured by the MTT assay. Coloured chemicals can also be tested by used of an HPLC procedure. RhCE tissue viability following exposure to a test chemical is measured by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT by the viable cells of the tissue into a blue MTT formazan salt that is quantitatively measured after extraction from tissues. The viability of the RhCE tissue is determined in comparison to tissues treated with the negative control substance (% viability), and is then used to predict the eye hazard potential of the test chemical. Chemicals not requiring classification and labelling according to UN GHS are identified as those that do not decrease tissue viability below a defined threshold (i.e., tissue viability > 60%, for UN GHS No Category).

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 455: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Stably Transfected Transactivation In Vitro Assays to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provide the methodology of Stably Transfected Transactivation to detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists (ER TA assays). It comprises mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the basis for this PBTG are: the Stably Transfected TA (STTA) assay using the (h) ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line, derived from a human cervical tumor, and the BG1Luc ER TA assay using the BG1Luc-4E2 cell line, derived from a human ovarian adenocarcinoma. The cell lines used in these assays express ER and have been stably transfected with an ER responsive luciferase reporter gene. The assays are used to identify chemicals that activate (i.e. act as agonists) and also suppress (i.e. act as antagonists) ER- dependent transcription. ER are activated following ligand binding, after which the receptor-ligand complex binds to specific DNA response elements and transactivates the reporter gene, resulting in increased cellular expression of a marker enzyme (e.g. luciferase in luciferase based systems). The enzyme then transforms the substrate to a bioluminescent product that can be quantitatively measured with a luminometer. These test methods are being proposed for screening and prioritisation purposes, but also provide mechanistic information that can be used in a weight of evidence approach.

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