Publications & Documents


  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 476: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests using the Hprt and xprt genes

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. In this test, the used genetic endpoints measure mutation at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and at a transgene of xanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT). The HPRT and XPRT mutation tests detect different spectra of genetic events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 241: The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA)

    The test guideline of the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) describes a toxicity test with an amphibian species (African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)) that considers growth and development from fertilization through the early juvenile period.  It is an assay (typically 16 weeks) that assesses early development, metamorphosis, survival, growth, and partial reproductive maturation. It also enables measurement of a suite of other endpoints that allows for diagnostic evaluation of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) or other types of developmental and reproductive toxicants. The LAGDA serves as a higher tier test with an amphibian for collecting more comprehensive concentration-response information on adverse effects suitable for use in hazard identification and characterization, and in ecological risk assessment. The general experimental design entails exposing X. laevis embryos at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 8-10 (3) to a minimum of four different concentrations of test chemical and control(s) until 10 weeks after the median time to NF stage 62.  There are four replicates in each test concentration with eight replicates for the control. Endpoints evaluated during the course of the exposure (at the interim sub-sample and final sample at completion of the test) include those indicative of generalized toxicity: mortality, abnormal behaviour, and growth determinations (length and weight), as well as endpoints designed to characterize specific endocrine toxicity modes of action targeting oestrogen, androgen or thyroid-mediated physiological processes.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 422: Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test

    This screening Test Guideline describes the effects of a test chemical on male and female reproductive performance. It has been updated with endocrine disruptor endpoints, in particular measure of anogenital distance and male nipple retention in pups and thyroid examination.

    The test substance is administered in graduated doses to several groups of males and females. Males should be dosed for a minimum of four weeks. Females should be dosed throughout the study, so approximately 63 days. Matings "one male to one female" should normally be used in this study. This Test Guideline is designed for use with the rat. It is recommended that each group be started with at least 10 animals of each sex. Generally, at least three test groups and a control group should be used. Dose levels may be based on information from acute toxicity tests or on results from repeated dose studies. The test substance is administered orally and daily. The results of this study include clinical observations, body weight and food/water consumption, oestrous cycle monitoring, offspring parameters observation/measurement, thyroid hormone measurement, as well as gross necropsy and histopathology. The findings of this toxicity study should be evaluated in terms of the observed effects, necropsy and microscopic findings. Because of the short period of treatment of the male, the histopathology of the testis and epididymus should be considered along with the fertility data, when assessing male reproductive effects.

  • 27-July-2015

    English

    Towards Green Growth? - Tracking Progress

    The 2011 Green Growth Strategy provided initial guidance to governments on how to achieve economic growth and development, while preventing costly environmental damage and inefficient resource use. What progress have countries made in aligning economic and environmental priorities since 2011? This report attempts to evaluate this progress and highlight where there is broad scope to heighten the ambition and effectiveness of green growth policy. It draws lessons from green growth mainstreaming across the OECD’s work programme, notably in terms of how governments can maximise institutional settings to seize economic opportunities surrounding the transition to a green economy, and considers ways to enrich the Green Growth Strategy based on work undertaken since its launch.

  • 27-July-2015

    English

    Webinar: Towards Green Growth? Official Launch of the OECD's Tracking Progress Report

    On July 27, 2015 from 15:00 to 16:30 Paris time, the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) hosted a webinar to launch the OECD's new report titled "Towards Green Growth? Tracking Progress". Featuring Carlo Carraro, Catherine L. Mann, Nathalie Girouard and Kevin Urama; this webinar will explore the advances made since the launch of the OECD's green growth strategy in 2011.

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  • 16-July-2015

    English

    Green and Growing, or ripe and rotting? Insights Blog

    In a recent lecture on climate change, the Secretary-General stated that “Tomorrow’s societies engineered around yesterday’s solutions won’t get us there.” The OECD’s work on green growth is just one example of where the organisation is working towards the development of solutions for today.

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  • 13-July-2015

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Brazil

    Agriculture and the agro-processing sector in Brazil have shown impressive growth over the past two decades. This has largely been driven by productivity improvements and structural adjustment resulting from broad economic reforms, as well as new technologies developed by agricultural science. Government policy and industry initiatives are increasingly focused on the sustainability of agricultural development.

  • 7-July-2015

    English

    Climate Change Risks and Adaptation - Linking Policy and Economics

    Climate change is giving rise to diverse risks, ranging from changing incidences of tropical diseases to increased risks of drought, varying widely in their potential severity, frequency and predictability. Governments must integrate the management of these climate risks into policy making if they are to successfully adapt to a changing climate. Economic analysis has a vital role to play in supporting these efforts, by identifying costs and benefits and supporting decision-making for an uncertain future. However, this analysis needs to be adapted to the institutions, policies and climate risks in a given country. Building on the experience of OECD countries, this report sets out how the latest economic evidence and tools can enable better policy making for adaptation.

  • 3-July-2015

    English

    Climate: What’s changed, what hasn’t and what we can do about it - Six Months to COP21

    Without zero net CO2 emissions, temperatures will just keep rising. When I said that two years ago, it was deemed controversial. Today, I’m pleased to see that it has become conventional wisdom and a commonly shared goal – including just last month by the G7 Leaders.

  • 3-July-2015

    English

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