Publications & Documents


  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 476: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests using the Hprt and xprt genes

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. In this test, the used genetic endpoints measure mutation at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and at a transgene of xanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT). The HPRT and XPRT mutation tests detect different spectra of genetic events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 489: In Vivo Mammalian Alkaline Comet Assay

    The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, also called alkaline Comet Assay is a method measuring DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells.

    Each treated group is composed of a minimum of 5 animals of one sex (or of each sex as appropriate). A positive and a vehicle control group are also used. Administration of the treatment consists of daily doses over duration of 2 days or more, ensuring the test chemical reaches the target tissue which can be the liver, the kidney or other tissues if justified.

    Tissues of interest are dissected and single cells/nuclei suspensions are prepared and embedded in agarose on slides. Cells/nuclei are treated with lysis buffer to remove cellular and/or nuclear membranes. The nuclear DNA in the agar is then subjected to electrophoresis at high pH. This results in structures resembling comets which by using suitable fluorescent stain, can be observed by fluorescent microscopy. Based on their size DNA fragments migrate away from the head to the tail, and the intensity of the comet tail relative to the total intensity (head plus tail) reflects the amount of DNA breakage.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 442E: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - Human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT)

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS). This Test Guideline (TG) provides an in vitro procedure (the human cell Line Activation Test h-CLAT method) used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS. The h-CLAT method is proposed to address the third key event of the skin sensitisation AOP by quantifying changes in the expression of cell surface markers associated with the process of activation of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) (i.e. CD86 and CD54), in the human monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1, following exposure to sensitising test chemical. These surface molecules are typical markers of monocytic THP-1 activation and may mimic DC activation, which plays a critical role in T-cell priming. The changes of surface marker expression are measured by flow cytometry following cell staining with fluorochrome-tagged antibodies. The relative fluorescence intensity of surface markers compared to solvent/vehicle control are calculated and used in the prediction model, to support the discrimination between sensitisers and non-sensitisers.

  • 21-July-2016

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Chile 2016

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.

    This report is the second Environmental Performance Review of Chile. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on climate change and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

  • 21-July-2016

    English

    Chile must implement measures to stem environmental pressures

    Chile has taken steps to address the rising environmental pressures from its rapid economic growth, strengthening its environmental institutions and introducing new instruments, including a carbon tax. It now needs to move ahead and thoroughly implement policy measures to stem the threat to its land, air and water, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 19-July-2016

    English

    Israel's Green Tax on Cars - Environment Policy Paper

    Israel’s growing population and rising incomes have seen consumption increase substantially, bringing with it considerable pressure on the environment. One of the main environmental pressures is from the ever-increasing transport activity, especially the use of private vehicles. Although travelling in a private vehicle brings benefits to the individual using it, this entails costs to society as a whole.

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  • 12-July-2016

    English

    Aid to the Energy Generation and Supply sector

    The DAC defines aid to Energy generation and supply as including energy sector policy, planning and programmes, and aid to power generation of both renewable and non-renewable sources.

  • 11-July-2016

    English

    France will need further effort to meet environmental goals

    France has improved its environmental performance over the last decade, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, reducing some air pollutants and cutting its use of fresh water. Further effort will be needed, however, to reduce pollution by nitrates and pesticides and meet ambitious renewable energy targets, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 11-July-2016

    English

    France will need further effort to meet environmental goals

    France has improved its environmental performance over the last decade, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, reducing some air pollutants and cutting its use of fresh water. Further effort will be needed, however, to reduce pollution by nitrates and pesticides and meet ambitious renewable energy targets, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 11-July-2016

    English

    Find an environmental country review

    Since the inception of the Environmental Performance Reviews programme in 1992, most of the OECD member countries have been reviewed twice. The third cycle of reviews effectively began in 2010, with a new approach that systematically incorporates key environmental trends, policy-making environment and green growth, plus two thematic chapters.

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