Publications & Documents


  • 14-September-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform Schemes in the Republic of Moldova - Assessing Energy Affordability and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
  • 16-July-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Czech Republic 2018

    The Czech Republic has made progress in decoupling economic growth from freshwater abstractions, energy consumption, GHG and other air pollutants emissions. However, its strong industrial base and reliance on coal place the country among the most energy- and carbon-intensive in the OECD and air pollution is a serious health concern. Progressing towards sustainable development will require strengthening political commitment to a low-carbon economy and implementing more cost-effective environmental policies.
    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, materials management and circular economy and sustainable urban development.
  • 10-July-2018

    English

    Mainstreaming Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    The need to mainstream biodiversity into economic growth and development is being increasingly recognised and is now also firmly embedded in the Sustainable Development Goals. Drawing on experiences and insights from 16 megadiverse countries, this report examines how biodiversity is being mainstreamed in four key areas: 1) national development plans and strategies, institutional co-ordination and national budgets; 2) the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors; 3) the development co-operation horizon; and 4) monitoring and evaluation efforts.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2018

    Hungary has made significant progress in decoupling its output growth from main environmental pressures, largely due to implementing requirements of EU directives. However, greenhouse gas emissions have started to pick up with the recent rebound of economic activity. Local air quality has not improved significantly, and water quality remains at risk. Important institutional challenges impede more effective implementation of environmental laws and policies. Hungary can accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon and greener economy, particularly by investing in residential energy efficiency and sound waste and material management, and better mainstreaming of biodiversity protection into sectoral economic policies.This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Hungary. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, material management and circular economy, and biodiversity.
  • 26-June-2018

    English

    Reshaping Decentralised Development Co-operation - The Key Role of Cities and Regions for the 2030 Agenda

    Over the last decades, and in line with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, cities and regions have played an important part in helping to implement global agendas at local level through their Decentralised Development Cooperation (DDC) activities. This report analyses the evolution of financial flows, emerging trends and innovative paradigms related to the development co-operation of local and regional governments, including but not limited to official development assistance extended by sub-national governments. It promotes a territorial approach to development co-operation and provides policy recommendations to maximise the effectiveness, benefits and outcomes of DDC at all levels, while acknowledging the diversity of approaches, definitions and concepts across OECD DAC countries active in DDC.
  • 26-June-2018

    English

    Managing Weather-Related Disasters in Southeast Asian Agriculture

    Southeast Asia’s exposure to increasingly frequent and intense weather-related disasters is a growing concern for agricultural producers of the region. This study reviews policy approaches to droughts, floods and typhoons in Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam in an effort to identify good practices and strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sector. The study assesses the risk exposure of this sector to weather-related disasters and reviews risk management policies using an OECD policy framework on the mitigation of droughts and floods in agriculture as a benchmark.The analysis reveals several priority areas  to strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sectors in these four Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, including: 1) improving the prevention and mitigation components of disaster risk management by aligning policy incentives and by integrating risk-reduction measures into infrastructure planning and extension systems; 2) implementing and enforcing water allocation and water use restriction instruments to steer farmers towards more efficient water use; 3)  enhancing the co-ordination of government and partner institutions' activities to enable a more timely response to disasters; and 4) improving the timely distribution of inputs, equipment and social protection measures like disaster-linked cash transfers to strengthen the capacity of farmers to recover from disasters.
  • 25-June-2018

    English

    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment - Further Developments and Policy Use

    This book explores recent developments in environmental cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This is defined as the application of CBA to projects or policies that have the deliberate aim of environmental improvement or are actions that affect, in some way, the natural environment as an indirect consequence. It builds on the previous OECD book by David Pearce et al. (2006), which took as its starting point that a number of developments in CBA, taken together, altered the way in which many economists would argue CBA should be carried out and that this was particularly so in the context of policies and projects with significant environmental impacts.
    It is a primary objective of the current book not only to assess more recent advances in CBA theory but also to identify how specific developments illustrate key thematic narratives with implications for practical use of environmental CBA in policy formulation and appraisal of investment projects.
    Perhaps the most significant development is the contribution of climate economics in its response to the challenge of appraising policy actions to mitigate (or adapt to) climate change. Work in this area has increased the focus on how to value costs and benefits that occur far into the future, particularly by showing how conventional procedures for establishing the social discount rate become highly problematic in this intergenerational context and what new approaches might be needed. The contribution of climate economics has also entailed thinking further about uncertainty in CBA, especially where uncertain outcomes might be associated with large (and adverse) impacts.
  • 23-June-2018

    English

    Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms in the Environment, Volume 8 - OECD Consensus Document of the Biology of Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Volume 8 of the Series contains the first biosafety ‘consensus document’ to deal with the biology of an insect, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Issued by the OECD Working Group on the Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology, the science-based consensus documents collate information for use during the regulatory risk assessment of biotechnology products, i.e. transgenic organisms (plants, animals, micro-organisms) when intended for release in the environment. Ae. aegypti mosquito is vectoring yellow fever, dengue, Zika and Chikungunya diseases in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Biotechnological applications are developed to control the mosquito population and reduce virus transmission. The book provides information on Ae. aegypti taxonomy, morphology, life cycle, reproductive biology, genetics, ecology, interactions with other species and the environment. The mosquito effects on human and animal health, and the control strategies/specific programmes to limit its development are also summarised.
  • 19-June-2018

    English

    Green Talks LIVE

    The OECD Green Talks Live webinar series brings world experts together on pressing environmental issues for a global audience. These free webinars are open to the general public and participants are welcome to pose questions during the Q&A segment. Missed the Green Talks? Watch the video recordings online.

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  • 18-June-2018

    English

    OECD action on climate change

    The OECD climate change work is focusing on how to move countries to low-emissions and climate resilient pathways, and how to improve the effectiveness of the global climate regime. Explore the policy areas to access the latest OECD work in each area and find out more on how the OECD is supporting action on climate change.

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