The objective of the European Union Water Initiative, launched at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002J, is to create the conditions for mobilising all available EU resources (human & financial), and to co-ordinate them to achieve the water-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in partner countries.
The 19th meeting of the EU Water Initiative Working Group took place on 12-13 May 2016 at the International Energy Agency Headquarters (IEA) in Paris, France, bringing together senior officials representing water and environmental authorities from countries of Western and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) as well as international organizations, multilateral and bilateral donors.
The OECD work on water analyses how water management can contribute to sustainable growth and development, with a focus on financing water services and infrastructure, managing water related risks (including scarcity and pollution), and urban water management. A new Recommendation on water has been adopted by the OECD Council on 13 December 2016.
This meeting took place on 24-25 November at the OECD Headquarters, and brougt together EECCA and OECD countries as well as partner organisations to shape the work of the GREEN Action Programme. The meeting determined how to continue the existing co-operation with governments and civil societies in order to help implement policies that are economically efficient, environmentally sustainable and socially acceptable.
This report aims to shed light on how EECCA countries and development co-operation partners are working together to finance climate actions, using the OECD DAC database to examine finance flows by provider, sector, financial instrument, channel, etc. A significant amount was committed by international public sources to the 11 countries comprising the EECCA in 2013 and 2014 (i.e. USD 3.3 billion per year), but the scale of such finance varies considerably from country to country and is insufficient to achieve and strengthen their climate targets communicated through the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions COP21.
In addition, while a range of climate-related policies have already been developed by the EECCA countries, the extent to which such policies are being effectively implemented and conducive to attracting climate finance is still unclear. In this respect, this report proposes a set of questions for the EECCA countries to self-assess their readiness to seize opportunities to access scaled-up climate finance from various sources: public, private, international and domestic.
The OECD supports countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) to reconcile their environment and economic goals thus addressing the heavy environmental legacy of the Soviet model of development. This support is provided within the framework of the GReen Economy and ENvironment Action Programme (the GREEN Action Ptogramme).
A major challenge facing the Republic of Buryatia, subject of the Russian Federation, is how to balance the task of protecting Lake Baikal – a unique water object and ecological system included in the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage Areas – with the need for dynamic and sustainable socio-economic development of the republic. This requires streamlining and improving water policy jointly with economic, administrative, information and other policy instruments. The recommendations in this report aim to help achieve this objective. They include the introduction of abstraction charges for irrigation water as a natural resource; enhancement of state support to the water sector; and improvement of economic instruments for managing risks of water-related hazards (such as compulsory insurance and differentiated land tax rates in flood prone areas). A few innovative instruments are also recommended for pilot testing such as establishing limits for discharges of certain hazardous substances in a pilot area (e.g. Selenga river basin) and progressive development of market for tradable quotas for discharges of the “capped” pollutants; and introducing a charge (tax) on toxic agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) and synthetic detergents so that to create incentives for the reduction of diffuse water pollution.
Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood” (EaP GREEN) programme is being implemented by OECD in co-operation with UNECE, UNEP, and UNIDO to assist the European Union’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries in their transition to green economies. Read the latest news and upcoming events.
This report presents recommendations on the reform of economic instruments for water resources management in Kyrgyzstan, specifically on tariffs for urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) and irrigation water, pollution charges, surface water abstraction charges for enterprises (consumptive and non-consumptive uses), specific land tax rates for the Issyk-Kul biosphere reserve, as well as taxes and customs duty on products contributing to water pollution. For each instrument, alternative reform options are identified and assessed, and preferred options put forward, with an action plan.
This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.