The developed countries that signed the three Rio Conventions in 1992 committed themselves to assist developing countries in the implementation of these Conventions. Since 1998 the DAC has monitored aid targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions through its Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using the so called Rio markers. Every aid activity reported to the CRS should be screened and marked as either (i) targeting the Conventions as a principal objective or a significant objective, or (ii) not targeting the objective.
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Biodiversity-related aid is defined as activities that promote at least one of the three objectives of the Convention: the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components (ecosystems, species or genetic resources), or fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of the utilisation of genetic resources. Full definition.
Desertification-related aid is defined as activities that combat desertification or mitigate the effects of drought in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas through prevention and/or reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation of partly degraded land, or reclamation of desertified land. Full definition.
Climate change mitigation-related aid is defined as activities that contribute to the objective of stabilisation of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system by promoting efforts to reduce or limit GHG emissions or to enhance GHG sequestration. Full definition.
Climate change adaptation-related aid. In December 2009 the DAC members approved a new marker to also track aid in support of climate change adaptation. This new marker will complement the existing climate change mitigation marker, and thus allow presentation of a more complete picture of aid in support of developing countries' efforts to address climate change. climate change adaptation .
Handbook on the OECD-DAC Climate Markers
To obtain data by recipient, sector and at activity level by querying the on-line CRS database for Rio markers and environment marker; click here (updated in November 2013).
Also, the time series for Rio marker are presented here: Rio marker data.
Nevertheless, note that Rio marker data available in CRS online may differ from the time series presented above in the form of aggregates. The latter take into account additional amounts provided by members during special studies that could not be integrated in the regular CRS database presented in CRS online.
Read also the FAQs for data users.
Important notes on data:
From 1998 onwards the DAC has monitored aid targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions through the CRS using the "Rio markers". Data for years 1998-2006 were obtained on a trial basis; reporting became mandatory starting with 2007 flows.
There are gaps in the data series, but their coverage has improved regularly over the years. For 2008 data, only Luxembourg, Norway (forthcoming) and the United States did not report on the Rio markers in the CRS.
N.B. marker methodology: The marker data do not allow exact quantification of amounts allocated or spent. They give an indication (best estimate) of such aid flows and describe the extent to which donors address the objectives of the Rio Conventions in their aid programmes.
OECD Development Assistance Committee Tracks Aid in Support of Climate Change
Analyses of Aid - how much aid is delivered, where and for what purpose
Environment: Climate change aid up to USD 22.9 billion in 2010, says OECD’s Gurría