Climate change

Post-2012 Framework & Other Issues


The objective of the work on long-term issues is to investigate how possible policy decisions, including future commitments, may progressively ensure the long term success of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

 Event: CCXG Global Forum on the New UNFCCC Market Mechanism and Tracking Climate Finance
19-20 March 2012


Tracking and Trading: Expanding on Options for International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting After 2012 (November 2011)
Andrew Prag, (OECD), Christina Hood (IEA), André Aasrud (IEA) and Gregory Briner (OECD)


Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate Action (May 2011)
Barbara Buchner (CPI), Jessica Brown (ODI) and Jan Corfee-Morlot (OECD). This report highlights the relevant information that needs to be tracked in order to build a comprehensive MRV system for climate finance, proposing both improvements to current reporting and tracking systems as well as new reporting approaches for a more robust and inclusive MRV system.


Keeping Track: Options to Develop International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting After 2012 (June 2011)

Andrew Prag (OECD), André Aasrud, Christina Hood (IEA)
There is still uncertainty surrounding the use of tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) units in a post-2012 international climate change policy framework. In particular, it is not clear whether the current approach under the Kyoto Protocol of allocating centrally-administered emissions allowances for Annex I countries will continue and be built upon, or whether a future system will be based on emission reduction pledges by countries and therefore be less centralised. This paper examines environmental and institutional implications of the use of tradable GHG units under different international accounting scenarios, and explores elements of common ground between scenarios, including lessons from outside the Kyoto Protocol system.


Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons (November 2010)
Christa Clapp, Gregory Briner and Katia Karousakis (OECD)
This paper outlines how the concept of LEDS has evolved in the climate policy discourse and explores how it could usefully add to the large number of existing strategies, action plans, and reporting documents that are already available. The paper outlines gaps that LEDS could fill, the elements it could contain, and how LEDS can be prepared to ensure that they are effective and efficient in delivering their intended goals.


Market Readiness: Building blocks for market approaches (November 2010)
André Aasrud, Richard Baron (IEA) and Katia Karousakis (OECD)
Market-based mechanisms offer a number of advantages to other regulatory approaches for GHG mitigation such as technology or performance standards and feed-in tariffs. This paper examines essential elements of “market readiness” for possible new mechanisms and highlights some of the past and new market readiness activities, of use as UNFCCC Parties are to consider decisions on future market approaches.


Matching Mitigation Actions with Support: Key Issues for Channelling International Public Finance (December 2009).
Joy Aeree Kim, Jane Ellis (OECD) and Sara Moarif (IEA)

At the heart of designing a successful framework for the post-2012 climate change regime are the issues of finance and enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation – both in developed and developing countries. How to “match” support with GHG mitigation actions in developing countries will play a crucial role in addressing both issues of finance and enhanced mitigation, as it can affect the environmental performance and cost-effectiveness of such support. This paper explores experience with, and possible design elements/options for, a mechanism to match support with nationally appropriate mitigation actions in developing countries that require such support.


National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models (November 2009)
By Christa Clapp, Katia Karousakis (OECD), Barbara Buchner (IEA), Jean Chateau (OECD)
This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.


Linking Mitigation Actions with Mitigation Support in Developing Countries: A Conceptual Framework (March 2009)
By Joy Aeree Kim (OECD), Jan Corfee-Morlot (OECD), Philippine de T’Serclaes (IEA)
The Bali Action Plan introduced the notion of linking GHG mitigation action in developing countries with support for such action, in a "measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV)" manner. However, it does not specify the relationship or link that may be made between nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in developing countries and mitigation support. It also remains unclear whether the MRV requirements apply to the link between NAMAs in developing countries and mitigation support, or to one or both of the separate elements. This paper suggests a number of elements for a possible conceptual framework to "link" mitigation actions with mitigation support, including practical considerations for how one might measure, report and verify progress, with a view to understanding the role for such a framework in a post-2012 agreement.

Differentiating Countries in terms of Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support (Nov 2008)
By Katia Karousakis (OECD), Bruno Guay (OECD) and Cédric Philibert (IEA)
This paper examines approaches to differentiation to inform policy-making for a post-2012 climate change regime. In principle, differentiation seeks to reflect the different national circumstances across countries to ensure equitable climate change mitigation policy. First and foremost, this paper explores various indicators that could be used for the purpose of differentiating countries, and how such indicators could be combined if Parties wished to create various country categories, associated with different levels of
mitigation effort. Given the aim to enhance and promote national/international action in developed and developing countries to mitigate climate change, this paper also briefly discusses what may be considered nationally appropriate in terms of mitigation commitments, actions and support, and how these may evolve as national circumstances change over time.

SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How? (Dec 2007)
by Jane Ellis (OECD), Richard Baron and Barbara Buchner (IEA)
The use of “sustainable development policies and measures” (SD-PAMs) has been proposed as a possible type of action or commitment for some developing countries in the post-2012 framework. This paper examines what SD-PAMs could encompass, how and where they could be implemented and how they could fit into a post-2012 climate regime. The paper highlights that in order for SD-PAMs to be implemented, agreement is needed on the purpose and definition of SD-PAMs, when countries can start using SD-PAMs, when countries are no longer eligible to focus their GHG mitigation activities on SD-PAMs only, and how SD-PAMs are to be encouraged. The paper concludes that the greater the incentives available for implementing SD-PAMs, the greater the required level of stringency of international oversight – and that a balance will be needed between the international benefits of SD-PAMs and how much oversight is desirable and feasible.

Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods (Dec 2007)
by Barbara Buchner
Today’s investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

Approaches for Future International Co-operation (June 2005)
by Cédric Philibert
This paper provides a comprehensive repertory of approaches for future international co-operation in climate change mitigation, based on the literature.  Its headlines gather proposals made by various authors that share the main basic features. The various options are classified into a few broad categories; most, but not all, suggest various forms of agreements on policies and measures and technology-focussed approaches. All these approaches are building blocks enabling the reader to consider a much broader set of options by combining them in various ways.

Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions: Summary Paper (May 2004)
by Stéphane Willems
This paper explores the role of institutional capacity in selecting the most appropriate climate actions. Why should institutional capacity be considered as an important criterion for selecting future climate actions, alongside environmental, economic and/or political considerations, in some countries? It suggests a step-by-step, dynamic model for prioritising climate actions and capacity development measures over time. This could help countries select climate actions that are consistent with the pace of their institutional development, building confidence and paving the way to more ambitious policies.

Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions: Case Studies on Mexico, India and Bulgaria (2003)

These country-specific capacity assessments provide useful insights on each country’s institutional challenges and how they might affect the development of current and future actions.

Evolution of Mitigation Commitments: Some Key Issues  (2003)
Also available in French and in Spanish.

This study considers a broad range of issues relating to the future of the UN Convention on Climate Change. It first draws a "long-term picture", considering damage and policy costs, risks and uncertainties, and technical, institutional and social changes. It then considers various forms of quantified objectives for future commitments, as well as alternatives to quantified objectives at country level, and discusses allocation.


Workshop: "Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry - Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned"

The Annex I Expert Group (AIXG) on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held a workshop on 'Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry - Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned' in December 2002 in Berlin, Germany. This paper is the workshop report prepared by the OECD Secretariat for the AIXG as a background on greenhouse gas emissions in the industry sector and policy trends, workshop conclusions, as well as experience relating to the implementation of policy instruments to reduce emissions in the industry sector.


Related Documents


Financing Climate Change Action

Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) on the UNFCCC

Economics of Climate Change Mitigation

Adaptation to Climate Change

Benefits - Direct and Ancillary

to be changed

OECD Work on Climate Change


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