By Date


  • 16-July-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Czech Republic 2018

    The Czech Republic has made progress in decoupling economic growth from freshwater abstractions, energy consumption, GHG and other air pollutants emissions. However, its strong industrial base and reliance on coal place the country among the most energy- and carbon-intensive in the OECD and air pollution is a serious health concern. Progressing towards sustainable development will require strengthening political commitment to a low-carbon economy and implementing more cost-effective environmental policies.
    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, materials management and circular economy and sustainable urban development.
  • 13-July-2018

    English

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, in Prague on 16 July 2018

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, will be in Prague on 16 July 2018 on an official visit. He will present the 2018 OECD Economic Survey and the Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic.

    Related Documents
  • 10-July-2018

    English

    Mainstreaming Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    The need to mainstream biodiversity into economic growth and development is being increasingly recognised and is now also firmly embedded in the Sustainable Development Goals. Drawing on experiences and insights from 16 predominantly megadiverse countries, this report examines how biodiversity is being mainstreamed in four key areas: 1) at the national level, including national development plans and other strategies, institutional co-ordination and national budgets; 2) the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors; 3) in development co-operation; and 4) the monitoring and evaluation of biodiversity mainstreaming and how this could be improved.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2018

    Hungary has made significant progress in decoupling its output growth from main environmental pressures, largely due to implementing requirements of EU directives. However, greenhouse gas emissions have started to pick up with the recent rebound of economic activity. Local air quality has not improved significantly, and water quality remains at risk. Important institutional challenges impede more effective implementation of environmental laws and policies. Hungary can accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon and greener economy, particularly by investing in residential energy efficiency and sound waste and material management, and better mainstreaming of biodiversity protection into sectoral economic policies.This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Hungary. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, material management and circular economy, and biodiversity.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    Hungary has made progress on greening its economy and now needs to raise its ambitions

    Hungary has made progress in greening its economy and cutting emissions, but it needs to speed up efforts to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources, improve energy efficiency in buildings and promote sustainable transport, according to a new OECD Review.

    Related Documents
  • 27-June-2018

    English

    Test No. 492: Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method for identifying chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure allowing the identification of chemicals (substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage in accordance with UN GHS. It makes use of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE) which closely mimics the histological, morphological, biochemical and physiological properties of the human corneal epithelium. The test evaluates the ability of a test chemical to induce cytotoxicity in a RhCE tissue construct, as measured by the MTT assay. Coloured chemicals can also be tested by used of an HPLC procedure. RhCE tissue viability following exposure to a test chemical is measured by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT by the viable cells of the tissue into a blue MTT formazan salt that is quantitatively measured after extraction from tissues. The viability of the RhCE tissue is determined in comparison to tissues treated with the negative control substance (% viability), and is then used to predict the eye hazard potential of the test chemical. Chemicals not requiring classification and labelling according to UN GHS are identified as those that do not decrease tissue viability below a defined threshold (i.e., tissue viability > 60%, for UN GHS No Category).
  • 27-June-2018

    English

    Test No. 433: Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Fixed Concentration Procedure

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test chemical by inhalation.It is a principle of the method that only moderately toxic concentrations are used so that ‘evident toxicity’, rather than death/moribundity is used as an endpoint, and concentrations that are expected to be lethal are avoided.Groups of animals of a single sex are exposed for a short period of time to the test chemical in a stepwise procedure using the appropriate fixed concentrations for vapours, dusts/mists (aerosols) or gases.  Further groups of animals may be tested at higher concentrations in the absence of signs of evident toxicity or mortality at lower concentrations. This procedure continues until the concentration causing evident toxicity or no more than one death/ moribund animal is identified, or when no effects are seen at the highest concentration or when deaths/ moribundity occur at the lowest concentration.  A total of five animals of one sex will normally be used for each concentration level investigated. The results of this study include: measurements (weighing at least weekly) and daily detailed observations, as well as gross necropsy. The method provides information on the hazardous properties and allows the substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals. 
  • 27-June-2018

    English

    Test No. 491: Short Time Exposure In Vitro Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage

    This Test Guideline describes a cytotoxicity-based in vitro assay that is performed on a confluent monolayer of Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells, cultured on a 96-well polycarbonate microplate. After five-minute exposure to a test chemical, the cytotoxicity is quantitatively measured as the relative viability of SIRC cells using the MTT assay. Decreased cell viability is used to predict potential adverse effects leading to ocular damage. Cell viability is assessed by the quantitative measurement, after extraction from the cells, of blue formazan salt produced by the living cells by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT, also known as Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide. The obtained cell viability is compared to the solvent control (relative viability) and used to estimate the potential eye hazard of the test chemical. A test chemical is classified as UN GHS Category 1 when both the 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability smaller than or equal to (≤) 70%. Conversely, a chemical is predicted as UN GHS No Category when both 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability higher than (>) 70%.
  • 27-June-2018

    English

    Test No. 442E: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - In Vitro Skin Sensitisation assays addressing the Key Event on activation of dendritic cells on the Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation

    The present Key Event based Test Guideline (TG) addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. More specifically, it addresses the activation of dendritic cells, which is one Key Event on the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for Skin Sensitisation. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS). This TG provides three in vitro test methods addressing the same Key Event on the AOP: (i) the human cell Line Activation Test or h-CLAT method, (ii) the U937 Cell Line Activation Test or U-SENS and (iii) the Interleukin-8 Reporter Gene Assay or IL-8 Luc assay. All of them are used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS. Test methods described in this TG either quantify the change in the expression of cell surface marker(s) associated with the process of activation of monocytes and DC following exposure to sensitisers (e.g. CD54, CD86) or the changes in IL-8 expression, a cytokine associated with the activation of DC. In the h-CLAT and U-SENS assays, the changes of surface marker expression are measured by flow cytometry following cell staining with fluorochrome-tagged antibodies. In the IL-8 Luc assay, the changes in IL-8 expression are measured indirectly via the activity of a luciferase gene under the control of the IL-8 promoter. The relative fluorescence or luminescence intensity of the treated cells compared to solvent/vehicle control are calculated and used in the prediction model, to support the discrimination between sensitisers and non-sensitisers.
  • 26-June-2018

    English

    Managing Weather-Related Disasters in Southeast Asian Agriculture

    Southeast Asia’s exposure to increasingly frequent and intense weather-related disasters is a growing concern for agricultural producers of the region. This study reviews policy approaches to droughts, floods and typhoons in Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam in an effort to identify good practices and strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sector. The study assesses the risk exposure of this sector to weather-related disasters and reviews risk management policies using an OECD policy framework on the mitigation of droughts and floods in agriculture as a benchmark.The analysis reveals several priority areas  to strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sectors in these four Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, including: 1) improving the prevention and mitigation components of disaster risk management by aligning policy incentives and by integrating risk-reduction measures into infrastructure planning and extension systems; 2) implementing and enforcing water allocation and water use restriction instruments to steer farmers towards more efficient water use; 3)  enhancing the co-ordination of government and partner institutions' activities to enable a more timely response to disasters; and 4) improving the timely distribution of inputs, equipment and social protection measures like disaster-linked cash transfers to strengthen the capacity of farmers to recover from disasters.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>