By Date


  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 491: Short Time Exposure In Vitro Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage

    This Test Guideline describes a cytotoxicity-based in vitro assay that is performed on a confluent monolayer of Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells, cultured on a 96-well polycarbonate microplate. After five-minute exposure to a test chemical, the cytotoxicity is quantitatively measured as the relative viability of SIRC cells using the MTT assay. Decreased cell viability is used to predict potential adverse effects leading to ocular damage. Cell viability is assessed by the quantitative measurement, after extraction from the cells, of blue formazan salt produced by the living cells by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT, also known as Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide. The obtained cell viability is compared to the solvent control (relative viability) and used to estimate the potential eye hazard of the test chemical. A test chemical is classified as UN GHS Category 1 when both the 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability smaller than or equal to (≤) 70%. Conversely, a chemical is predicted as UN GHS No Category when both 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability higher than (>) 70%.

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 244: Protozoan Activated Sludge Inhibition Test

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess effects of a test chemical on the phagocytotic activity of activated sludge containing protozoan organisms under defined conditions in the presence of different concentrations of the test chemical. The principle of biological sewage-treatment plants (STP) is to transform the organic matter of incoming waste-water in microbial biomass, which in turn is separated from the liquid yielding a purified effluent. The purpose of the test is to provide a means to record effects of test chemicals on ciliated protozoa in sewage treatment plants, which due to their grazing on bacteria considerably contribute to the functioning of STPs.
  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 402: Acute Dermal Toxicity

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test chemical by dermal route. Test chemicals should not be administered at doses that are known to cause marked pain and distress due to potential corrosive or severely irritant actions.

    Groups of animals, of a single sex, are exposed via the dermal route to the test chemical in a stepwise procedure using the appropriate fixed doses. The initial dose level is selected at the concentration expected to produce clear signs of toxicity without causing severe toxic effects or mortality. Further groups of animals may be tested at higher or lower fixed doses, depending on the presence or absence of signs of toxicity or mortality. This procedure continues until the dose causing toxicity or no more than one death is identified, or when no effects are seen at the highest dose or when deaths occur at the lowest dose.  Subsequently, observations of effects and deaths are made. Animals which die during the test are necropsied, and at the conclusion of the test the surviving animals are sacrificed and necropsied.

    The method provides information on the hazardous properties and allows the substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

     

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 442E: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - In Vitro Skin Sensitisation assays addressing the Key Event on activation of dendritic cells on the Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation

    The present Key Event based Test Guideline (TG) addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. More specifically, it addresses the activation of dendritic cells, which is one Key Event on the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for Skin Sensitisation. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS). This TG provides three in vitro test methods addressing the same Key Event on the AOP: (i) the human cell Line Activation Test or h-CLAT method, (ii) the U937 Cell Line Activation Test or U-SENS and (iii) the Interleukin-8 Reporter Gene Assay or IL-8 Luc assay. All of them are used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS. Test methods described in this TG either quantify the change in the expression of cell surface marker(s) associated with the process of activation of monocytes and DC following exposure to sensitisers (e.g. CD54, CD86) or the changes in IL-8 expression, a cytokine associated with the activation of DC. In the h-CLAT and U-SENS assays, the changes of surface marker expression are measured by flow cytometry following cell staining with fluorochrome-tagged antibodies. In the IL-8 Luc assay, the changes in IL-8 expression are measured indirectly via the activity of a luciferase gene under the control of the IL-8 promoter. The relative fluorescence or luminescence intensity of the treated cells compared to solvent/vehicle control are calculated and used in the prediction model, to support the discrimination between sensitisers and non-sensitisers.

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 246: Bumblebee, Acute Contact Toxicity Test

    This test guideline is a laboratory test method, designed to assess the acute contact toxicity of pesticides and other chemicals to adult worker bumblebees.

    Adult worker bumblebees are exposed to the test chemical dissolved in an appropriate carrier, by direct application to the dorsal thorax (droplet). The test duration is at least 48 h. Mortality is recorded daily and compared with control values. Results are analysed in order to calculate the LD50 and NOED, if possible, at 24 h & 48 h and furthermore at 72 h & 96 h in case the study is prolonged.

  • 2-October-2017

    English

    Green investment banks

    To leverage the impact of relatively limited public resources, over a dozen national and sub-national governments have created public green investment banks (GIBs) and GIB-like entities.

    Related Documents
  • 26-September-2017

    English

    The Land-Water-Energy Nexus - Biophysical and Economic Consequences

    This report contributes to the discussion of interconnections between scarce resources by highlighting the nexus between land, water and energy (the LWE nexus). It focuses on a dynamic, integrated, and disaggregated analysis of how land, water and energy interact in the biophysical and economic systems. The report provides projections for the biophysical and economic consequences of nexus bottlenecks until 2060, highlighting that while the LWE nexus is essentially local, there can be significant large-scale repercussions in vulnerable regions, notably on forest cover and in terms of food and water security.
     
    The analysis is based on coupling a gridded biophysical systems model with a multi-regional, multi-sectoral dynamic general equilibrium modelling assessment. Numerical insights are provided by investigating a carefully selected set of scenarios that are designed to illustrate the key bottlenecks: one scenario for each resource bottleneck, plus two scenarios that combine all bottlenecks, with and without an overlay of climate change.

  • 26-September-2017

    English

    National Policy Dialogues on water in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

    The EUWI EECCA is the regional component of the EU Water Initiative focused on Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). It supports work of the European Neighbourhood Policy and of the EU-Central Asia Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation, and helps to promote the progressive approximation to EU water policies, particularly to the EU Water Framework Directive, in EECCA countries.

    Related Documents
  • 22-September-2017

    English

    Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Korea - Policy Issues and Recommendations

    The report, building on a policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders in Korea, analyses how economic policy instruments under the responsibility of the Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport can be adjusted to contribute to water policy objectives. It also investigates how Smart Water Management Korea, an initiative by K-water that combines information and communication technology with water technology, can be harnessed to better contribute to water management in the country. Finally, it identifies some of the limitations of prevalent water allocation regimes which need to be addressed to make the best use of available water resources.

    Since 1965, the Korean Government has invested heavily in quantitative development strategies to meet water needs, and despite highly variable water availability, this has allowed for and facilitated rapid urbanisation and economic growth. However, several long-term trends are expected to affect the capacity of the current water management system to adequately respond to current and future water risks, such as rapid ageing of the population, fiscal consolidation and climate change. These call for a renewed emphasis on water use efficiency.

  • 13-September-2017

    English

    Global Forum on the Environment and Climate Change - organised by the Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) - September 2017

    The Global Forum was held on 12-13 September 2017 to discuss the themes of the 2018 facilitative dialogue, transparency of mitigation action and climate finance, and accounting for NDCs; the Forum brought together approximately 200 delegates from both OECD and non-OECD countries.

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