Climate change is not just about a change in climate towards hotter, wetter, and drier conditions, but also about an increase in the variability of the climate, as well as in the number and severity of extreme events.
This study provides an empirical analysis of the effects of environmental zoning on urban development. It focuses on the case of Natural Regional Parks (NRPs) in France. Of the environmental zoning instruments used in France, NRPs extend over the widest physical area. Three potential side-effects of NRPs on urban development in the regulated area are investigated.
This paper reviews the latest climate projections for West Africa and considers alternative ways in which the knowledge generated from climate science can be understood in the context of preparing for an uncertain future that provides practical help for decision makers.
The OECD DAC aims to assist countries to implement effective and efficient policies to address climate change by conducting policy-relevant research and analysis related to climate change adaptation, financing and measuring aid in support of climate change mitigation and adaptation.
The Framework is an operational tool offering guidance on actionable steps for harnessing non-renewable natural resources to build competitive, diversifi ed, and sustainable economies in a scalable manner. It presents a practical guide on how host governments, extractives industries and civil society can work together in a structured and systematic way to enable in-country shared value creation and advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Framework transcends sectoral boundaries and focuses on strategies to foster coherence, sequencing, and effective co-ordination for integrated policymaking, and suggests monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress and impact over time.
The actionable steps are addressed to governments, industry, and civil society clearly articulating their respective roles for improved collaboration, mutual respect and accountability.
Water is linked to many economic activities, and there are complex channels through which water affects economic growth. The purpose of this report is to provide background information useful for a quantitative global assessment of the impact of water scarcity on growth using a multi-region, recursive-dynamic, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.
The Climate Fund Inventory (CFI) database is a qualitative database of bilateral and multilateral public climate funds. This CFI initiative is in response to the proliferation of the number of climate funds that have been established to support countries with their climate change mitigation and adaptation actions, as well as readiness activities.
This report presents recommendations on the reform of economic instruments for water resources management in Kyrgyzstan, specifically on tariffs for urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) and irrigation water, pollution charges, surface water abstraction charges for enterprises (consumptive and non-consumptive uses), specific land tax rates for the Issyk-Kul biosphere reserve, as well as taxes and customs duty on products contributing to water pollution. For each instrument, alternative reform options are identified and assessed, and preferred options put forward, with an action plan.
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The car tax in Israel has been historically the highest compared to any other country in the world, except for Denmark. The vehicle purchase tax was adjusted in 2005, 2009 and 2013. The Israeli experience sets a precedent for a tax that takes all pollutants into account.
The purpose of the Dominant lethal (DL) test is to investigate whether chemical agents produce mutations resulting from chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. In addition, the dominant lethal test is relevant to assessing genotoxicity because, although they may vary among species, factors of in vivo metabolism, pharmacokinetics and DNA-repair processes are active and contribute to the response. Induction of a DL mutation after exposure to a test chemical indicates that the chemical has affected germinal tissue of the test animal.
This modified version of the Test Guideline reflects more than thirty years of experience with this test and the potential for integrating or combining this test with other toxicity tests such as developmental, reproductive toxicity, or genotoxicity studies; however due to its limitations and the use of a large number of animals this assay is not intended for use as a primary method, but rather as a supplemental test method which can only be used when there is no alternative for regulatory requirements.