By Date


  • 23-October-2017

    English

    Improving Domestic Financial Support Mechanisms in Moldova's Water and Sanitation Sector

    The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable: tariffs do not typically cover operational costs and capital investments are heavily funded by external development partners. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation, notably: 1) sufficient investment for the implementation of targets and obligations set in the national strategies, the Association Agreement with the EU, as well as Moldova’s international commitments (water-related Sustainable Development Goals, and the “Water-to-all” commitment); 2) the financial sustainability of operators; and 3) the affordability of WSS services for end-users, especially low-income segments of the population.

  • 18-October-2017

    English

    Environmental-economic modelling

    Modelling work is aimed to assist governments in identifying the implications of major socio-economic trends on environmental pressures and the consequences of policies or policy mixes to address these. New OECD overview report on Employment Implications of Green Growth: Linking jobs, growth and green policies to the G7 Environment Ministers held on 11-12 June 2017 in Bologna.

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  • 18-October-2017

    English

    Costs of Inaction and Resource scarcity: Consequences for Long-term Economic growth (CIRCLE)

    This project identifies how feedbacks from poor environmental quality, climatic change and natural resource scarcity may affect economic growth in the coming decades. CIRCLE has generated quantitative projections for economic growth which reflect the costs of policy inaction on climate change, outdoor air pollution and other environmental issues. These reference projections improve OECD projections of "baseline" economic growth.

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  • 17-October-2017

    English

    Groundwater Allocation - Managing Growing Pressures on Quantity and Quality

    Groundwater allocation determines who is able to use groundwater resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from groundwater, today and in the future. Building on the 2015 OECD publication Water Resources Allocation: Sharing Risks and Opportunities, this report focuses on groundwater and how its allocation can be improved in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness and social equity. Drawing on an analysis of groundwater’s distinctive features and nine case studies of groundwater allocation in a range of countries, the report provides practical policy guidance for groundwater allocation in the form of a "health check". This health check can be used to assess the performance of current arrangements and manage the transition towards improved allocation.

  • 10-October-2017

    English

    Mobilising investment in clean energy infrastructure

    Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.

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  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 492: Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method for identifying chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure allowing the identification of chemicals (substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage in accordance with UN GHS. It makes use of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE) which closely mimics the histological, morphological, biochemical and physiological properties of the human corneal epithelium. The test evaluates the ability of a test chemical to induce cytotoxicity in a RhCE tissue construct, as measured by the MTT assay. Coloured chemicals can also be tested by used of an HPLC procedure. RhCE tissue viability following exposure to a test chemical is measured by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT by the viable cells of the tissue into a blue MTT formazan salt that is quantitatively measured after extraction from tissues. The viability of the RhCE tissue is determined in comparison to tissues treated with the negative control substance (% viability), and is then used to predict the eye hazard potential of the test chemical. Chemicals not requiring classification and labelling according to UN GHS are identified as those that do not decrease tissue viability below a defined threshold (i.e., tissue viability > 60%, for UN GHS No Category).

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 247: Bumblebee, Acute Oral Toxicity Test

    This test guideline is a laboratory test method, designed to assess the acute oral toxicity of pesticides and other chemicals to adult worker bumblebees.

    Adult worker bumblebees are exposed to 50 % (w/v) aqueous sucrose solution containing the test chemical. The test duration is at least 48 h. Mortality is recorded daily and compared with control values. Results are analysed in order to calculate the LD50 and NOED, if possible, at 24 h & 48 h and furthermore at 72 h & 96 h in case the study is prolonged.

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)

    This Test Guideline describes a chronic oral toxicity test on adult worker honey bees under laboratory conditions over an exposure period of 10 days.

    Young bees (max. 2 days old) are exposed to 50 % (w/v) aqueous sucrose solution containing the test chemical by continuous and ad libitum feeding over a period of 10 days. Mortality and behavioural abnormalities are observed and recorded daily during the 10 day test period. The chronic effects of the test chemical are evaluated by comparing the results of the test chemical treated group to those of the respective control group. The test is designed for the determination of the following endpoints  LC50 (median Lethal Concentration) and the LDD50 (median Lethal Dietary Dose) values after 10 days of exposure, and NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) and NOEDD (No Observed Effect Dietary Dose).

     

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 433: Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Fixed Concentration Procedure

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test chemical by inhalation.

    It is a principle of the method that only moderately toxic concentrations are used so that ‘evident toxicity’, rather than death/moribundity is used as an endpoint, and concentrations that are expected to be lethal are avoided.

    Groups of animals of a single sex are exposed for a short period of time to the test chemical in a stepwise procedure using the appropriate fixed concentrations for vapours, dusts/mists (aerosols) or gases.  Further groups of animals may be tested at higher concentrations in the absence of signs of evident toxicity or mortality at lower concentrations. This procedure continues until the concentration causing evident toxicity or no more than one death/ moribund animal is identified, or when no effects are seen at the highest concentration or when deaths/ moribundity occur at the lowest concentration.  A total of five animals of one sex will normally be used for each concentration level investigated. The results of this study include: measurements (weighing at least weekly) and daily detailed observations, as well as gross necropsy. The method provides information on the hazardous properties and allows the substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

     

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 491: Short Time Exposure In Vitro Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage

    This Test Guideline describes a cytotoxicity-based in vitro assay that is performed on a confluent monolayer of Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells, cultured on a 96-well polycarbonate microplate. After five-minute exposure to a test chemical, the cytotoxicity is quantitatively measured as the relative viability of SIRC cells using the MTT assay. Decreased cell viability is used to predict potential adverse effects leading to ocular damage. Cell viability is assessed by the quantitative measurement, after extraction from the cells, of blue formazan salt produced by the living cells by enzymatic conversion of the vital dye MTT, also known as Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide. The obtained cell viability is compared to the solvent control (relative viability) and used to estimate the potential eye hazard of the test chemical. A test chemical is classified as UN GHS Category 1 when both the 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability smaller than or equal to (≤) 70%. Conversely, a chemical is predicted as UN GHS No Category when both 5% and 0.05% concentrations result in a cell viability higher than (>) 70%.

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