By Date


  • 2-September-2015

    English

    Multi-level governance and robust water allocation regimes needed to secure Brazil’s future water needs

    The recent droughts in Brazil’s Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states have exposed the need to shift from crisis management to effective risk governance of the country’s water resources, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 31-August-2015

    English

    Climate Fund Inventory: report and database

    The Climate Fund Inventory (CFI) database is a qualitative database of bilateral and multilateral public climate funds. This CFI initiative is in response to the proliferation of the number of climate funds that have been established to support countries with their climate change mitigation and adaptation actions, as well as readiness activities.

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  • 21-August-2015

    English, PDF, 3,652kb

    Brochure - OECD work on water 2015-16

    This brochure provides an overview of OECD work on water. Water policies around the world are in urgent need of reform. OECD work identifies the priority areas where governments need to focus their reform efforts.

  • 4-August-2015

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Australia

    Australia’s agriculture and food industries are well placed to contribute to the economy’s future growth given the robust prospects of global food demand and the continuing high international competitiveness of these sectors. There are, however, important challenges that call for new ways to exploit agricultural resources and human capital. The decade-long decline in agricultural productivity growth needs to be overcome, coupled with the need to accommodate uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and to respond to societal demands in the areas of sustainable development and animal welfare. The agro-food sector also needs to absorb exchange-rate and cost pressures created by the mining boom. To tap additional opportunities of the higher value food segments, Australian agri-businesses need new knowledge and capabilities to seize demand signals and value opportunities, particularly from more affluent consumers in Asian markets.

  • 3-August-2015

    English

    Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators: Environment Working Paper

    This paper reviews a number of OECD data sources to examine their potential for establishing indicators which can contribute to monitoring progress towards two of the 2011-2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), namely Target 3 on Incentives and Target 20 on Resource Mobilisation.

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  • 3-August-2015

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Canada

    The Canadian food and agriculture sector is for the most part competitive and export-oriented: although challenges and opportunities vary significantly between regions, primary agriculture benefits from an abundance of natural resources and faces limited environmental constraints. Negative environmental impacts of agriculture relate mainly to local water pollution by agricultural nutrients. Productivity growth, resulting from innovation and structural change, has driven production and income growth without significantly increasing pressure on resource use. Nonetheless, the capacity to innovate is crucial to take advantage of the growing and changing demand for food and agricultural products at the global level.

  • 31-July-2015

    English

    OECD biotechnology newsletter updates

    OECD major events and activities relating to biotechnologies: latest developments are updated biannually in this Newsletter.

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  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 421: Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test

    This screening Test Guideline describes the effects of a test chemical on male and female reproductive performance. It has been updated with endocrine disruptor endpoints, in particular measure of anogenital distance and male nipple retention in pups and thyroid examination.

    The test substance is administered in graduated doses to several groups of males and females. Males should be dosed for a minimum of four weeks. Females should be dosed throughout the study, so approximately 63 days. Matings "one male to one female" should normally be used in this study. This Test Guideline is designed for use with the rat. It is recommended that each group be started with at least 10 animals of each sex. Generally, at least three test groups and a control group should be used. Dose levels may be based on information from acute toxicity tests or on results from repeated dose studies. The test substance is administered orally and daily. The results of this study include clinical observations, body weight and food/water consumption, oestrous cycle monitoring, offspring parameters observation/measurement, thyroid hormone measurement, as well as gross necropsy and histopathology. The findings of this toxicity study should be evaluated in terms of the observed effects, necropsy and microscopic findings. Because of the short period of treatment of the male, the histopathology of the testis and epididymus should be considered along with the fertility data, when assessing male reproductive effects.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 493: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (hrER) In Vitro Assays to Detect Chemicals with ER Binding Affinity

    This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provide the methodology for human recombinant in vitro assays to detect substances with estrogen receptor binding affinity (hrER binding assays). It comprises two mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor (i.e. ERα) binders and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the basis for this PBTG are: the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) In Vitro Estrogen Receptor (ER) Binding Assay Using a Full Length Human Recombinant ERα, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Binding Assay Using a Human Recombinant Ligand Binding Domain Protein. This assay measures the ability of a radiolabeled ligand ([3H]17β-estradiol) to bind with the ER in the presence of increasing concentrations of a test chemical (i.e. competitor).  Test chemicals that possess a high affinity for the ER compete with the radiolabeled ligand at a lower concentration as compared with those chemicals with lower affinity for the receptor. This assay consists of two major components: a saturation binding experiment to characterise receptor-ligand interaction parameters and document ER specificity, followed by a competitive binding experiment that characterises the competition between a test chemical and a radiolabeled ligand for binding to the ER. These test methods are being proposed for screening and prioritisation purposes, but also provide mechanistic information that can be used in a weight of evidence approach.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 476: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests using the Hprt and xprt genes

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. In this test, the used genetic endpoints measure mutation at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and at a transgene of xanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT). The HPRT and XPRT mutation tests detect different spectra of genetic events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

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