OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving countries’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. The most recent reviews include: Spain (2015), Brazil (2015) and Chile (2016).
This report is the third Environmental Performance Review of France. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on energy transition and biodiversity.
In 2009 developed countries committed to jointly mobilise USD 100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 for climate action in developing countries. This report provides a status check on the level of climate finance mobilised by developed countries in 2013 and 2014, five years after this initial commitment was made at COP15 in Copenhagen. It shows that there has been significant progress in meeting this goal.
The report aims to be transparent and rigorous in its assessment of the available data and underlying assumptions and methodologies, within the constraints of an aggregate reporting exercise. While methodological approaches and data collection efforts to support estimates such as this one are improving, there nevertheless remains significant work to be done to arrive at more complete and accurate estimates in the future.
To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.
OECD and FAO have developed this Guidance to help enterprises observe standards of responsible business conduct and undertake due diligence along agricultural supply chains in order to ensure that their operations do not lead to adverse impacts and do contribute to sustainable development. The Guidance comprises:
• A model enterprise policy outlining the standards that enterprises should observe to build responsible agricultural supply chains;
• A framework for risk-based due diligence describing the five steps that enterprises should follow to identify, assess, mitigate and account for how they address the adverse impacts of their activities;
• A description of the major risks faced by enterprises and the measures to mitigate these risks;
• Guidance for engaging with indigenous peoples.
This event, with involvement from the OECD, on 6-7 September 2016, is of major strategic nature during the Slovak Presidency of the European Council. Its ambition is to improve understanding of the green economy concept, identify conclusions and pathways for transition as well as to involve and mobilise various actors and stakeholders in the discussions of possible future actions.
Today, the challenge of water security is global and it is growing. We estimate that by 2050, over 40% of the global population will live under severe water stress; and as global population increases, so will tensions among different water uses.
Without new policies, by 2050, freshwater availability will be further strained and 3.9 billion people will be living in river basins experiencing severe water stress. The OECD work on water analyses how water management can contribute to sustainable growth and development, with a focus on financing water services and infrastructure, managing water related risks (including scarcity and pollution), and urban water management.
OECD defines EPR as an environmental policy approach in which a producer's responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a product's life cycle.
Modelling work is aimed to assist governments in identifying the implications of major socio-economic trends on environmental pressures and the consequences of policies or policy mixes to address these. A new report provides a detailed quantitative assessment of the consequences of outdoor air pollution on economic growth through 2060.
The CCXG is a group of government delegates and experts from OECD and other industrialised countries. Its aim is to promote dialogue on and enhance understanding of technical issues in the international climate change negotiations. Two new reports and expanded summaries on Mitigation and Support in the Paris Agreement - and Adaptation to climate change are now available.