Economics and Policies for Biodiversity: OECD's Response


The OECD provides governments with analysis to support the development of biodiversity policies that are economically efficient, environmentally effective and distributionally equitable. Policy analysis by the OECD focuses on the economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the use of economic instruments, incentives, and other policy measures to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. This work also supports the Convention on Biological Diversity. 


  • OECD Workshop on Biodiversity and Development: Mainstreaming and Managing for Results, OECD, Paris, France, 18 February 2015

    This workshop, jointly convened by the Environment and the Development Co-operation Directorates, brought together over 85 representatives from the biodiversity and development co-operation communities to share experiences and insights on the key opportunities and challenges to mainstreaming biodiversity into development policies and planning and into development co-operation.



Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life - providing critical ecosystem services, such as food security, water purification, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation - and is essential to support human well-being and economic growth.

The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 identified biodiversity as one of the four critical priorities for the coming two decades. The Outlook predicts that without renewed efforts to halt the loss of biodiversity, a further 10 percent of biodiversity (measured in Mean Species Abundance) will be lost by 2050. Read the Biodiversity chapter.



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Contact us: env.contact@oecd.org

Scaling-up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity

Cover page of Scaling up Finance Mechanisms for BiodiversityThis book examines six mechanisms that can be used to scale-up financing for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use and help meet the 2011-2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The mechanisms are environmental fiscal reform, payments for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets, green markets, biodiversity in climate change funding, and biodiversity in international development finance. Drawing on literature and more than 40 case studies worldwide, the book addresses the following questions: What are these mechanisms and how do they work? How much finance have they mobilised and what potential is there to scale this up? And what are the key design and implementation issues - including environmental and social safeguards - that need to be addressed so that governments can ensure these mechanisms are environmentally effective, economically efficient and distributionally equitable? Read the Policy Highlights.

Recently released The Role of National Ecosystem Assessments in Influencing Policy Making

Drawing on case studies from the UK, Japan, Portugal and others, this report examines how the impact of NEA's on policy can be enhanced.

Key Policy Areas

Economics and policies for biodiversity

 Biodiversity Indicators, Valuation and Assessment
 Economic Instruments, Incentives and Markets
 Biodiversity Finance, Development and Distributional Issues

Sector-specific Analysis

 Biodiversity and Climate Change
 Biodiversity and Agriculture
 Biodiversity and Fisheries




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