Biodiversity and ecosystem services provide tangible benefits for society, such as food provisioning, water purification, genetic resources or climate regulation. These services provide critical life support functions and contribute to human health, well being and economic growth. Yet biodiversity is declining worldwide and, in some areas, this loss is accelerating. The need for policies that promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services is more important than ever.
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a direct and flexible incentive-based mechanism under which the user or beneficiary of an ecosystem service makes a direct payment to an individual or community whose land use decisions have an impact on the ecosystem service provision. Interest in PES has been increasing rapidly over the past decade: PES are proliferating worldwide and there are already more than 300 programmes in place today at national, regional and local levels.
Drawing on the literature concerning effective PES and on more than 30 case studies from both developed and developing countries, this book aims to identify good practice in the design and implementation of PES programmes so as to enhance their environmental and cost effectiveness. It addresses the following questions:
PART I. DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE PAYMENTS FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROGRAMMES
Chapter 1. The economics of payments for ecosystem services
Chapter 2. Environmentally effective payments for ecosystem services
Chapter 3. Cost-effective targeting of payments for ecosystem services
Chapter 4. Mobilising finance for payments for ecosystem services
Chapter 5. Insights for international payments for ecosystem services
PART II. PAYMENTS FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROGRAMMES CASE STUDIES
Chapter 6. United States - The USDA Conservation Reserve Programme
Chapter 7. Australia - The Tasmanian Forest Conservation Fund
Chapter 8. Indonesia - A pilot PES auction in the Sumberjaya watershed
Annex A - Case study overview
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