Biodiversity, water and natural resource management

Economics and policies for biodiversity: OECD's response


The OECD provides governments with analysis to support the development of biodiversity policies that are economically efficient, environmentally effective and distributionally equitable. Policy analysis by the OECD focuses on the economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the use of economic instruments, incentives, and other policy measures to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. This work also supports the Convention on Biological Diversity.

world environment day - 5 june 2017

RECENT report


OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems is examing a number of key areas of current and emerging policy priorities. These include:

  • Biodiversity and Development - Mainstreaming and Managing for Results - this ongoing work is focusing on the three key areas namely mainstreaming biodiversity and development objectives at the national level, at the sectoral level (e.g. in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry), in development co-operation, and how to monitor and evaluate mainstreaming performance over time. It is a joint project between the OECD Environment Directorate and the Development Co-operation Directorate.


  • This report examines the key design and implementation features that need to be considered to ensure that biodiversity offset programmes are environmentally effective, economically efficient, and distributionally equitable.

  • Biodiversity offsets are being increasingly used in a wide range of sectors as a mechanism to help compensate for the adverse effects caused by development projects in a variety of ecosystems. In this report, insights and lessons learned are drawn from more than 40 case studies from around the world, with an additional 3 in-depth country case studies from the United States, Germany and Mexico.


Download the Highlights - PDF version


  • This report examines six mechanisms that can be used to scale-up financing for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use and to help meet the 2011-20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Drawing on literature and more than 40 case studies worldwide, this book addresses the following questions:
    1. What are these mechanisms and how do they work?
    2. How much finance have they mobilised and what potential is there to scale this up?
    3. What are the key design and implementation issues that need to be addressed so that governments can ensure these mechanisms are environmentally effective, economically efficient and distributionally equitable?

Download the Highlights - PDF version


Working Papers


  • Biodiversity indicators, valuation and assessment
  • Economic instruments, incentives and market
  • Biodiversity finance, developement and distributional issues
  • Biodiversity and Climate Change
  • Biodiversity and Agriculture
  • Biodiversity and Fisheries




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