Environment in emerging and transition economies

Institutional Development and Training


Past efforts to strengthen enforcement institutions in EECCA often involved continuous organisational reform without improving decision-making processes, management approaches and skills of individuals. This has led to institutional instabilities, distortion of priorities and loss of (or shortage of) professional staff.
Addressing the challenges of effective and efficient implementation of environmental regulation requires enforcement officers to introduce well-defined compliance assurance strategies and tools, and apply them consistently and continuously. They also need to apply internal management systems which are systematic, well planned and fit the existing enforcement and compliance capacities. Inspectors have to acquire solid training on procedures which are supported by solid scientific, economic and legal understanding.

Training and methodological material based on best international practice in compliance assurance has been developed by the EAP Task Force during the 2001-2003 work programme. This included a comprehensive inspectors toolkit that covers management, procedural and substantive aspects of compliance assurance.

The toolkit is used for training of environmental inspectors in the EECCA region.

In 2004-2005, about 200 managers from environmental inspectorates have been trained using the Toolkit in the Caucasus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. In 2006, training was organised in cooperation with the New Regional Environmental Centres: in March and July in the North West part of Russia and in September in Moldova, involving about 70 people. Another 40 officials of the State Environmental Inspectorate of Ukraine were introduced to modern practices of compliance assurance in February 2007. Efforts focus on working with the institutions and training centres in EECCA to create self-sustainable mechanisms for capacity building of EECCA agencies and enforcers. In order to create such a mechanism, Kazakhstan established a training centre for environmental inspectors and developed training programmes based on the Toolkit.
The EAP Task Force is implementing country-specific projects to build institutional capacity of environmental inspectorates in Georgia and Kazakhstan.

This work has been carried out based on voluntary contributions from the European Commission, Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway that is a major contributor to the institutional building in Georgia and Kazakhstan.