Environment in emerging and transition economies

Environmental Self-Monitoring


The main objective of this work is to develop approaches for optimising the design of compliance monitoring systems, particularly by developing environmental self-monitoring by enterprises.

The report “Modernizing Environmental Self-Control in Kazakhstan”, published in early 2006, provided a roadmap to improve environmental monitoring, record-keeping, and reporting by industrial operators themselves. Environmental self-control is a traditional regulatory instrument that needed serious transformation in EECCA. It encompasses organisational and technical measures, put in place and financed by enterprises, in order to monitor and ensure their own compliance with environmental regulatory requirements. The key policy recommendations presented in the above-mentioned report are relevant for the entire region and include:

  • Unambiguous definition of basic concepts and improved legal basis for self-control;
  • Providing the regulated community with clear guidance on the content of self-control programmes;
  • Combined use of different types of monitoring and acceptance of organisational forms of monitoring that better suit the resources available to particular categories of enterprises;
  • Development of reliable methodological approaches to setting regimes of monitoring (in particular the frequency of monitoring) thus optimising its costs;
  • Efficient data management and a meaningful use of information for decision-making.

The report is complemented by a technical guidance that is available upon request from the Secretariat in English and Russian languages. Also a training programme was developed for both regulators and industry.

The above-mentioned policy recommendations were based on a review of self-control in Kazakhstan and experience from the EU member states, in particular a Case Study from Estonia. These two documents were discussed at a national workshop in November 2003. Extensive consultations with the regulated community, including a meeting in July 2004, were conducted to assess the feasibility of proposed reforms and the level of their acceptance. Also a regional expert meeting was organised in June 2005 in Helsinki to discuss the policy recommendations, which were then endorsed at the REPIN Meeting in October 2005.
The Kazakh Ministry of Environment Protection took steps forward to implement these recommendations through amendments in the primary and secondary legislation.

The region-wide promotion of better self-control programmes is done in cooperation with UNECE. The EAP Task Force Secretariat provided input to the development of the “UNECE Guidelines for Enterprise Environmental Monitoring and Reporting in EECCA” that constitute a Category I document for the Belgrade Ministerial Conference, and preparation of an expert meeting in September 2006 to discuss the Guidelines.