Environment in emerging and transition economies

EAP Task Force Library

 

Publications catalogues | Policy briefs | Publications and reports | E-Alerts archive | Русская версия 

 

 Publications catalogues

EAP Task Force publications catalogue: 2007-2011

The current catalogue presents the main publications and other reports produced within the framework of the Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme (EAP Task Force). The EAP Task Force is an inter-government cooperation body that that promotes better environmental and water policies in countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA).

Also available in Russian.

EAP Task Force publications catalogue: 2003-2007

The current catalogue presents the main publications and other reports produced within the framework of the Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme (EAP Task Force).

Also available in Russian.

 Policy briefs

Greening public budgets in EECCA: Highlights for policy makers (policy brief), 2011

The purpose of this Policy Brief is to present some of the major findings and conclusions that have emerged from a survey, conducted by the OECD, on medium-term budgeting practices in the environment sector in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.

Also available in Russian.

Policies for a better environment: Progress in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (Summary for policymakers), 2007

In 2003, the Ministers of Environment of the 12 countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), together with their partners in the “Environment for Europe” process, adopted the EECCA Environment Strategy. The Strategy aims to promote sustainable development through environmental policy reform and environmental partnerships. This booklet provides a summary of progress in achieving the Strategy’s objectives. It is based in a longer report of the same title.

Also available in Russian.

Making environmental spending count (policy brief), 2007

This Policy Brief looks at how effectively governments use public funds to achieve environmental objectives, and what economies in transition can learn from the OECD experience in crafting and managing their own public expenditure programmes.

Also available in Russian and French.

Feasible financing strategies for environmentally related infrastructure (policy brief), 2003

A fresh approach to matching the costs of meeting environmental goals with the available resources.

 Publications and reports

2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000

Cover page for the report on Analysing energy subsidies in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2013

Analysing energy subsidies in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2013

Phasing out environmentally harmful energy subsidies is an effective way for governments to meet economic, environmental and social goals: it reduces incentives to consume energy and generate pollution, enhances the efficiency of resource allocation in the economy, and allows public finance to be reallocated to other priorities, including social protection. However, despite the potential benefits, there is a lack of information in most countries about the scale and impacts of these subsidies. This report aims to help fill this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of different tools and approaches that can be used to analyse subsidies and their impacts. While the report draws widely on international experience, issues related to applying the approaches reviewed in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia are also discussed.

Also available in Russian.

Cover page for the report on Promoting energy efficiency in the residential sector in Kazakhstan: designing a public investment programme (2011)

Promoting energy efficiency in the residential sector in Kazakhstan: designing a public investment programme, 2013

This report summarises the results of a study on how to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector in Kazakhstan. Specifically, it presents an analysis of how to design a public investment programme in this area. The programme should be completed by 2020. Together with other policy measures it should contribute to achieving the Government’s target of a 15%-reduction in CO2 emissions by that year. Several scenarios are analysed with costs ranging between EUR 10 mln to EUR 50 mln annually. In the most optimistic scenario, CO2 emissions could be reduced by 2.89% compared to the baseline 1990 emissions.

Also available in Russian.

 

 Refocusing economic and other monetary instruments for greater environmental impact: How to unblock reform in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2012

The main weakness of the application of monetary instruments for pollution prevention and control in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) over the last 20 years has been the lack of concern for their environmental effectiveness. The poor definition and distortion of the functions of individual monetary instruments and the exclusive focus on revenue raising are the key barriers to the improved implementation of these tools in line with international practices. This report's objective is to help EECCA countries to address these barriers to reform and to create a coherent mix of economic and other monetary instruments that would contribute to the overall greening of their economies. This report was produced with financial support from the governments of the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Also available in Russian.

Green Growth and Environmental Governance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia, 2012

This report takes stock of the latest developments in the overall economic and social conditions in EECCA countries, market signals and environmental governance arrangements that may facilitate the shift towards green growth, and discusses possible barriers and measures to overcome them.

Liability for environmental damage in EECCA: Implementation of good international practices, 2012

This report aims to assist countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) to streamline their systems of environmental liability, thereby implementing more amply and effectively the Polluter Pays Principle. More specifically, the report compares the concepts and existing practices in OECD and EECCA countries and provides recommendations on reforming liability provisions for environmental damage in the EECCA region.

Also available in Russian.

 

Information for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: Key Points for Reformers in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011

This document explains the importance of information as a key element to support policy-making related to sustainable natural resources management. It provides users with a menu of possible measures that can improve the design and performance of their countries’ knowledge systems on natural resource management. The document also equips readers with the understanding of key areas where policy dialogue and consensus-building is necessary. Decision-makers in environmental, economic, and sector-specific ministries in EECCA are the main target audience for this document.

Also available in Russian.

 

The Economic Significance of Natural Resources: Key Points for Reformers in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011

This report discusses both the economic importance of natural resources and how, by creating an adequate incentive framework, governments in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) can contribute towards maintaining the economic benefits of natural resources use in the long-term. The raising demands to establish institutions that reconcile economic and environmental objectives of natural resources use in a way that does not marginalise the poor was the starting point for developing this document. 

Also available in Russian.

Ten Years of Water Sector Reform in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011 

The objectives of this report are (i) to evaluate the performance of the water and sanitation sector in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) over the last ten years and (ii) to identify key factors underlying that performance. The report draws policy recommendations to help countries stem the overall decline in WSS in EECCA, building on existing achievements, and tackle new challenges such as climate change, and public budget cuts in a context of global economic crisis.

Also available in Russian.

Guidelines for performance-based contracts between water utilities and municipalities: Lessons learnt from Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011

This analytical report summarises the most recent experience with designing, negotiating and implementing performance-based contracts in the water supply and sanitation sector in selected Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia countries.

Also available in Russian.

Establishing a dynamic system of surface water quality regulation: Guidance for countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011 

This guidance document promotes the adoption of ambitious but feasible water quality requirements by building capacity for the preparation and implementation of the water quality planning and regulatory components of integrated water resources management in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries. It is designed to help EECCA countries to progress with a “second generation” of water-related legislation.

Also available in Russian.

Greening public budgets in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011 

This analytical report presents the results from a survey of ten Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries on mainstreaming environmental programmes into public budgets. The analysis contains policy relevant recommendations on improving medium-term financial planning of environmental expenditure.

Also available in Russian.

Green growth and environmental governance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2011

This paper presents an assessment of opportunities and constraints for green growth in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), particularly as concerns the potential of current environmental policies to catalyse transition towards green economy and the capacity of environmental authorities to play a leading role in this process.

Also available in Russian.

Natural resource tenure: Key points for reformers in EECCA, 2011

This paper provides a brief overview of key aspects of natural resource tenure, and lessons learned from their reform. Its preparation was part of analytical work in support to natural resource management reforms in Georgia though the results of this work which draws on international experience will be of relevance to other EECCA countries.

Also available in Russian.

Guidance on individual competence development within environmental inspectorates of EECCA, 2011

This Guidance document proposes a systemic approach for developing the skills and competences of individual’s working in environmental inspectorates in EECCA countries. It contains indicative competence targets for inspectorate staff, which cover theoretical knowledge, practical skills and abilities. The Guidance also includes checklists to assess inspectorates’ awareness of international environmental law.

Also available in Russian.

Private sector participation in water supply and sanitation in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2010

This document contains a regional review of experience with private sector participation, including proceedings from a thematic regional meeting, as well as the results of applying the “OECD Checklist for PSP in water infrastructure” by several Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia countries.

Also available in Russian.

Medium-term management of green budgets: The case of Ukriane, 2010

This study aimed to assist the Ukraine’s government to improve programming, financial planning and budgeting practices in the environmental sector thus increasing its chances to obtain more adequate financing. The study also examined the implications of the progressive shift in aid modalities towards sectoral and general budget support.

Also available in Russian.

Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of environmental inspections: Risk-based prioritisation and planning in Moldova, 2010

This report demonstrates an approach to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of environmental inspection by targeting polluters associated with higher risk. It describes a pilot study in Moldova which adapted and tested an inspection prioritisation and planning methodology and whose experience is largely applicable to all countries of EECCA.

Also available in Russian.

Removing economic benefits of environmental violations in Azerbaijan: Case study report, 2010

This report, based on the results of a pilot study in Azerbaijan, demonstrates the benefits of an improved methodology for the assessment of administrative environmental fines. It focuses on how to calculate the economic benefits of non-compliance and how to design monetary penalties so as to prevent polluters from benefiting from the potential gain.

Also available in Russian.

Capacity Development for Environmental Management in Moldova: Drivers, Links to Planning, and Methods of Assessment, 2010

According to the modern paradigm of donor aid delivery, the main responsibility for identifying capacity development needs and establishing specific capacity development targets is delegated to partner countries. In order to better understand the dynamics and feasibility of this approach, the current case study examines the existing practices of country-led institutional capacity diagnosis and development in the Republic of Moldova.

Securing resources for environmental regulation and enforcement in Kazakhstan: Prospects for improved budget planning and management, 2009

The current report looks at the budget management practices used by the environmental authorities of Kazakhstan, and the impact of financial constraints on their capacity to carry out their statutory obligations. The report covers such issues as level of revenue, budget planning, funds allocation and expenditure management, and ways to address funding gaps.

Also available in Russian.

Measuring results of environmental regulation and compliance assurance: Guidance for countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia, 2009

The current document was produced in response to demands to facilitate the adoption and use of tools that support performance-oriented management by, and enable regional benchmarking between, environmental enforcement authorities in EECCA. To this end, an analytical framework for performance measurement is proposed.

Also available in Russian.

Determination and application of administrative fines for environmental offences: Guidance for environmental enforcement authorities in EECCA countries, 2009

Monetary penalties (fines) are the most widespread administrative environmental enforcement instrument in EECCA as well as internationally, intended both to punish non-compliance and prevent its future re-occurrence. This document adapts good international practice to the legal and institutional realities in the region.

Also available in Russian.

Avenues for improved response to environmental offences in Kazakhstan, 2009

Kazakhstan has developed an extensive body of environmental law and put in place a non-compliance response system, which provides for administrative and judicial enforcement with a range of sanctions. Still, pervasive non-compliance as prevents Kazakhstan from achieving ambitious environmental objectives. To address this problem, the Ministry of Environment Protection of Kazakhstan and its Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control requested the OECD/EAP Task Secretariat to analyse the current system of environmental enforcement in light of good international practice and work out policy recommendations. This study constitutes a response to that request.

Also available in Russian.

Training course "Strategies and tools of environmental compliance assurance": Methodology description for trainers in EECCA countries, 2009

The overall objective of this comprehensive training course is helping environmental inspectorates to adopt good international practices of environmental compliance assurance. The course is based on the OECD publication “Assuring Environmental Compliance: A Toolkit for Better Environmental Inspectorates”.

Also available in Russian.

Policies for a better environment: Progress in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2007

In 2003, the Ministers of Environment of the 12 countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), together with their partners in the "Environment for Europe" process, adopted the EECCA Environment Strategy. This book provides a review of progress in achieving the Strategy's objectives, and provides a solid analytical base for discussions on future environmental co-operation between EECCA countries and their partners. Part I of the book looks at progress across the area on such strategic objectives as pollution prevention and control and environmental policy integration. Part II  provides country profiles.

Also available in Russian.

Guiding principles of effective environmental permitting systems, 2007

Environmental permitting is a key regulatory instrument for reducing industry’s environmental impacts, facilitating its compliance with environmental requirements and promoting technological innovation. The current document presents a reference that Governments in EECCA may wish to use when considering how to strengthen their environmental permitting systems. The Guiding Principles emphasise the introduction of integrated permitting for large industry and simplified permitting for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to achieve a higher level of environmental protection and, at the same time, reduce administrative burdens on regulatees.

Also available in Russian.

 

Trends in environmental finance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2007

The report builds on the analysis prepared for the 2003 Kiev and previous “Environment for Europe” Ministerial Conferences. It reports on updated data collected from countries in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), as well as from donors, International Financial Institutions and the private sector, and compiles a comprehensive picture of financial flows for environmental purposes in EECCA countries. Trends in EECCA countries are benchmarked against those in OECD and Central and Eastern European countries.

Also available in Russian.

Translating Environmental law into practice, 2007

Poor environmental compliance is symptomatic of policy failure and implies high costs for society, undermines the rule of law, and distorts the level playing field for businesses. The “Guiding Principles for Reform of Environmental Enforcement Authorities in Transition Economies”, endorsed at the Kiev Ministerial Conference, provide a reference model to help overcome compliance problems in EECCA. The current report, developed within the framework of the EAP Task Force’s Regulatory Environmental Programme Implementa tion Network (REPIN), reviews progress in transposing the Guiding Principles into practice and provides recommendations on future action.

Also available in Russian.

 

Progress report on partnerships in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2007

This report presents a review of environmental partnerships that contribute to the achievement of the seven objective and several sub-objectives of the EECCA Environment Strategy adopted at the 2003 “Environment for Europe” Ministerial Conference. It analyses progress in partnerships developed and implemented in the EECCA region since 2002 until the end of March 2007. The report identifies some emerging trends within the partnerships currently registered in the EECCA Strategy Database, which was established by the EAP Task Force to provide an online tool for monitoring partnerships. While donor reporting remains incomplete, the review has yielded a number of insights that can be useful for further facilitation and implementation of partnerships in the EECCA region.

Also available in Russian.

Handbook for Appraisal of Environmental Projects Financed from Public Funds, 2007

The Handbook is intended to provide policy-makers and managers of public environmental expenditure programmes in EECCA and Central and Eastern Europe with practical step-by-step guidance in the sound identification, appraisal, and financing of priority environmental investment projects.

Also available in Russian.

Small Business and Environmental Compliance: Review and Possible Application of International Experience in Georgia, 2007

Although the SME sector is not yet a major economic player in Georgia, the government put in place policies that target a rapid expansion of SMEs, which will increase not only the economic significance, but also the environmental impact of small firms. In order to help Georgia diminish this impact, a review of good international practice and tools used to promote environmental compliance within the SME sector was conducted.

Also available in Russian.

Surface Water Quality Regulation in Moldova: Policy Aspects of the Reform, 2007

The project report builds on the detailed technical justification of the proposed new SWQS system and analyses the policy aspects of its implementation, elaborates recommendations for legal and institutional changes to introduce this reform, and outlines the key aspects of the implementation process.

Also available in Russian.

Boosting Industry’s Environmental Performance Pilot Implementation of a Performance Rating Scheme in Ukraine, 2007

This document presents the results of pilot implementation of the performance rating in the Lviv region of Ukraine. This initiative seeks to help the regional administration to stimulate better environmental performance among industrial operators. It is also instrumental in establishing a better dialogue between enterprises, enforcement agencies, NGOs and the public on improving compliance with environmental requirements.

Also available in Russian.

Technical Guide on Environmental Self-monitoring in Countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia, 2007

Requiring industry to monitor its own compliance provides for a mechanism whereby incentives to achieve compliance voluntarily are created. The design and use of self-monitoring in countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia requires substantial improvement. In this context, the current Guidelines serve to help competent authorities to establish an appropriate framework for self-monitoring that would be effective in achieving environmental protection goals and would imply least costs for the society as a whole. Besides, the Guidelines also can support efforts of industrial operators to develop, implement and maintain effective and efficient self-monitoring programmes.

Also available in Russian.

Implementation of a national finance strategy for water supply and sanitation sector in Armenia (volume 1volume 2volume 3), 2007

This report consists of three parts each published in a separate volume: integrating the financial projections into budgetary decision making at the national level (Task 1); increasing the reliability of investment needs assessment, using robust methods to assess, manage and forecast demand for water supply and sanitation services (Task 2); and ensuring that tariff policies are sustainable from an economic and social point of view (Task 3).

Also available in Russian (volume 1volume 2, volume 3).

Lessons Learnt from Experience with Debt-for-Environment Swaps in Economies in Transition, 2007

This report summarises the major lessons learnt from the experience with debt-for-environment swaps (DFES) in selected transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. It presents the key steps in designing, negotiating and implementing DFES in low-income countries that have accumulated significant external debt and face challenges with servicing this debt.

Also available in Russian.

Lessons learnt from financing strategies for the municipal waste management sector in selected EECCA countries, 2007

The publication sketches a realist portrait of the municipal waste management sector in EECCA based on field work, presents lessons learnt from the financing strategy case studies, as well as on the methodology (see Annex 1), and proposes recommendations on policies which could be implemented in EECCA countries to promote the financial sustainability of the municipal waste sector. The recommendations also build on lessons learnt in EU accession and candidate countries (Latvia, Lithuania, Turkey), and on the experience of the OECD.

Financing Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, including progress in achieving water-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 2006

This report draws on work carried-out over the last seven years by the EAP Task Force and other actors in the EECCA region to draw a complete picture of the water supply and sanitation sector in the region and identifies some of the key reforms that will need to be undertaken to achieve the water-related MDGs.

Also available in Russian

Financing Strategy for the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Georgia, 2006

This report aims to assess the financial implications of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); to help the Government of Georgia to set realistic targets for the rehabilitation and development of urban water supply and sanitation infrastructure and services; and to identify options to bridge the financial gap between the expenditure needed for achieving policy objectives and the financing available.

Also available in Russian

 

Intergovernmental Transfers for Environmental Infrastructure: Lessons from Armenia, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2006

This report draws on three detailed case studies from Armenia, the Russian Federation and Turkey and on the experience of OECD countries to provide guidance on how transfers from central budgets to local authorities could be designed to finance environmental infrastructures in transition economies. The report also investigates mechanisms for transferring financial resources for water services from higher to lower levels of government.

 

Financing Water and Environment Infrastructure: The Case of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, 2006

The current environmental situation of the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) is dire and challenges are mounting, but there are also new opportunities. This report explains the environmental challenges that these transition economies face, and assesses the financial tools and resources, both domestic and foreign, available to tackle them.

Local Capital Markets for Environmental Infrastructure: Prospects in China, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2006

This report examines opportunities beyond the public sector for financing water and other environmental infrastructure. Specifically, opportunities for accessing savings through private financial and capital markets have been examined. The report identifies bottlenecks to the development of local financial markets for environmental infrastructure and discusses policy recommendations to tackle them.

Mechanisms for managing public environmental expenditure in selected OECD countries, 2006

This study is the first attempt to look at selected OECD members’ practices of managing public environmental expenditure in a structured, comparative way. Lessons learnt are relevant for both members and non-member countries, as they provide guidance on the institutional set-up of public environmental expenditure programmes.

Also available in Russian.

Environmental Policy and Regulation in Russia: The Implementation Challenge, 2006

The current report continues the series of policy analyses and provides an update of the developments in environmental policies and regulation, as well as government strategies for ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements in Russia since 2000.

Also available in Russian.

Monitoring Environmental Expenditure in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2006

This study presents the experience of the Kyrgyz Republic and Ukraine in reforming their environmental expenditure data collection systems. It provides insights into the challenges and potential benefits of implementing internationally-recognised classifications and methododologies when collecting such data. It is part of a wider series of reports on environmental finance in EECCA countries that provide advice to governments on policies for harnessing innovative sources of finance and for better managing existing resources.

Also available in Russian.

Performance Review of the State Environmental Protection Fund of Ukraine, 2006

This report presents the results of a Performance Review of the State Environmental Protection Fund of Ukraine. It aims to support the Ukrainian government in its efforts to improve the management of the public environmental finance system in line with international good practices.

Also available in Russian.

Debt-for-Environment Swap in Georgia: Pre-Feasibility Study and Institutional Options, 2006

The publication consists of two separate reports, dealing with different aspects of the debt-for-environment swap in Georgia. The first report – Debt-for-Environment Swap in Georgia: Pre-Feasibility Study and Institutional Options (the Pre-Feasibility Study) – aims to assist the Government of Georgia in analysing opportunities for, and challenges to, swapping (part of) its external debt for domestic financing of priority environmental projects.

Also available in Russian.

Debt-for-Environment Swap in Georgia: Potential Project Pipelines for the Expenditure Programme (Part I and Part II), 2006

The publication consists of two separate reports, dealing with different aspects of the debt-for-environment swap in Georgia. The second report – Potential Project Pipelines for the Expenditure Programme Financed by the Debt-for-Environment Swap in Georgia (the Pipelines Report) – focuses on the financial and economic analysis of the five most promising project pipelines that were identified during the Pre-Feasibility Study.

Also available in Russian (Part I and Part II).

Modernising environmental self-control by industrial operators in Kazakhstan: Policy recommendations, 2006

This document aims to summarise the strengths and weaknesses of environmental self-control in the Republic of Kazakhstan; and provide policy recommendations to improve this system, within a wider environmental regulatory reform launched by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP).

Also available in Russian.

Recommendations on Performance Measurement for Environmental Enforcement Authorities of Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia, 2006

The current document describes good international practice that could help to improve performance measurement frameworks used by environmental enforcement authorities in the region of EECCA.

Also available in Russian.

Approach to the introduction of integrated environmental permitting in Ukraine: Case study, 2006

The aim of this case study is to analyse the conditions and make recommendations for a step-by-step introduction of an integrated environmental permitting system for specific manufacturing sectors in Ukraine.

Also available in Russian.

Transition to integrated environmental permitting in the Kyrgyz Republic: Case study, 2006

The aim of this case study is to analyse the conditions and make recommendations for a step-by-step introduction of an integrated environmental permitting system for specific manufacturing sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Also available in Russian.

Transition to integrated environmental permitting in Georgia: Case study, 2006

The aim of this case study is to analyse the conditions and make recommendations for a step-by-step introduction of an integrated environmental permitting system for specific manufacturing sectors in Georgia.

Also available in Russian.

Environmental Management in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2005

This book brings together the findings of key sector- and media-specific analyses of the environment in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia (EECCA) area and puts forward a set of indicators to provide a one-stop, concise and up-to-date assessment that is accessible also to a non-specialist audience. It systematically looks at environmental legislation, policies, and institutions; pollution prevention and control; natural resources management; environmental policy integration; financial resources for the environment; environmental information and public awareness; and co-operation on transboundary issues.

Also available in Russian.

Promoting compliance with environmental requirements in Armenia, 2005

This peer review was conducted at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection immediately after the enactment of the Law on Environmental Enforcement of the Republic of Armenia and will constitute a baseline to monitor progress in implementing this law.

Also available in Russian.

Environmental Enforcement in the Kyrgyz Republic: Promoting Environmental Improvements and Enhancing Good Governance (Peer Review Recommendations), 2005
This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the first application of a peer review scheme for environmental enforcement authorities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. The recommendations suggest a number of short- and longer-term steps for reform of domestic compliance assurance instruments, strategies, and institutions in light of good international practice. They also aim to stimulate greater accountability to the general public and international partners.

Also available in Russian.

Integrated environmental permitting guidelines for EECCA countries, 2005

The Guidelines include strategic and pro­ce­dural guidance for envi­ronmental autho­rities in designing an effective and transparent integrated permit­ting system for large industry while simplifying the permitting regime for smaller polluters. The Guidelines focus on the best OECD practices in per­mit­ting that could become targets for rele­vant regulatory and institutional reforms in the EECCA region and other transition or emerging economies.

Also available in Russian.

Economic aspects of environmental compliance assurance: Proceedings from the OECD global forum on sustainable development, 2005

Although information exists on the incentive structure for environmentally responsible business conduct in OECD countries, direct comparison between OECD and transition or developing countries is not possible due to the significant differences between economic incentives for firms’ performance and overall business environment. In order to advance policy analysis in this field, a conference on economic aspects of environmental compliance assurance was conducted on 2-3 December 2004 at the OECD headquarters in Paris, France.

This conference enabled an open dialogue between enforcement practitioners and economists, and between countries at various stages of economic development.

Also available in Russian.

Определение инвестиционных приоритетов: Общие сведения о практике, действующей в городах и муниципалитетах России, 2005

Available only in Russian.

Pre-feasibility Analysis, Project Pipelines and Institutional Support for Debt-for-Environment Swap in the Kyrgyz Republic (Part I and Part II), 2005

This report presents the results of a project on Pre-feasibility Analysis, Project Pipelines and Institutional Support for Debt-for-Environment Swap in the Kyrgyz Republic. The study aims to assist the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in analysing opportunities for, and challenges to, swapping (part of) its external debt for domestic financing of environmental projects.

Available only in Russian (Part I and Part II).

Funding Environmental Compliance Assurance: Lessons Learned from International Experience, 2005

This report offers experiences, insights, and concerns, gathered through a survey of selected OECD and transition economies, on developing and applying funding policies and managing budgets of environmental enforcement agencies.

Available only in Russian.

Assuring Environmental Compliance: A Toolkit for Building Better Environmental Inspectorates in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia, 2004

The Toolkit presents best international practice to support improvements and help build the capacity of environmental inspectorates in transition economies. Throughout the Toolkit, case studies, examples of internal guidelines, and checklists are presented.

Also available in Russian.

Environmental pollution and product charges in Armenia: Assessment of reform progress and directions for further improvement, 2004

The objective of this report is to analyse the experience of the reform of economic instru­ments for environmental pro­tection in Armenia and to make recommendations for further improvement. It focuses on pollution and product charges. It does not cover user charges for water, wastewater, and waste management services or natural resource use charges.

Also available in Russian.

Reform of Pollution Charges in the Russian Federation: Assessment of Progress and Opportunities and Constraints for Further Improvement, 2004

This report focuses on reforming pollution charges, which are the main and most comprehensive type of economic instrument used for environmental protection in Russia since 1992. The report provides recommendations for a far-reaching reform of the pollution charge system in Russia based on the broader OECD work on economic instruments for environmental protection.

Also available in Russian.

Case Study on the Reform of Environmental Self-monitoring in Estonia, 2004

This case study addresses the reform and current organization of self-monitoring system in Estonia. It was developed within the context of the EAP Task Force demonstration project in Kazakhstan and presented to main stakeholders during the national seminar in Astana, Kazakhstan on 18 November 2003.

Also available in Russian.

Measuring What Matters: Proceedings from the INECE-OECD Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Indicators, 2004

These proceedings present the results of an international workshop on Compliance and Enforcement Indicators, which was organized by the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on 3-4 November 2003 in Paris.

Also available in Russian.

Financing strategy for municipal wastes management sector in Rostov oblast

(Annex IAnnex IIAnnex IIIAnnex IVAnnex VAnnex VIAnnex VII), 2004

Financing Strategy for Urban Wastewater Collection and Treatment infrastructure in Armenia, (Annex IAnnex IIAnnex IIIAnnex IV-V), 2004

This report presents the main conclusions and key recommendations of the Financing Strategy developed for the selected 19 urban areas with a population of 1.7 million people (60% of total population in Armenia).

Also available in Russian.

The FEASIBLE Model: User Manual and Documentation, 2004

This is the user manual and documentation of FEASIBLE - a software tool developed to support the preparation of environmental financing strategies for water, wastewater and municipal solid waste services in the CIS and CEE regions.

See also: The FEASIBLE Model: Quick GuideAppendix IAppendix IIAppendix IIIAppendix IVAppendix V and Appendix VI.

Финальный отчет о реализации многолетнего инвестиционного плана 2004 - 2008: Город Донской, Российская Федерация, 2004

This document presents the final report on development of multi-year investment plan (MIP) for Donskoy city, Russian Federation.

Available only in Russian.

Guiding Principles for Reform of Environmental Enforcement Authorities in Transition Economies of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2003

The Guiding Principles articulate the key features of an effective and efficient system for environmental enforcement and provide guidance to EECCA countries and other transition economies seeking to reform their laws and institutions. The Principles address a range of governmental structures responsible for identifying, monitoring, preventing, and taking action to correct non-compliance with environmental requirements.

Also available in Russian.

Financing Strategies for Water and Environmental Infrastructure, 2003

This book presents a method to develop financing strategies for investment-heavy environmental infrastructure, such as urban water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, and municipal solid waste. The strategies, supported by the FEASIBLE computer model, were developed in several countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), in EU accession countries and China. This approach focuses on the importance of realism, affordability and the cost-effective use of resources in achieving infrastructure development and environmental goals.

Also available in Russian.

Review of Environmental Permitting Systems in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2003

Environmental permitting has been a vital tool for reducing pollution and preventing major industrial accidents in OECD countries. Since they were first established more than a century ago, permitting systems have evolved in step with economic, technological and social developments. This report describes and analyses existing permitting systems in EECCA countries and possible measures to improve them.

Also available in Russian.

Trends in environmental expenditure and international commitments for the environment in EECCA, 2003

This report examines developments in environmental financing in EECCA since 1996 focusing on expenditures as well as external environmental assistance, Official Development Assistance/Official Assistance (ODA/OA), and lending from International Financial Institutions (IFI).

Also available in Russian.

Development of the Pilot Financing Strategy for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Eastern Kazakhstan Oblast, 2003

Also available in Russian.

Financing Strategy for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Rostov Oblast, 2003

Also available in Russian.

Financing Strategy for Municipal Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Yaroslavl Oblast, 2003

Also available in Russian.

Financing Strategy for the Solid Waste Management Sector in Yaroslavl Oblast, 2003

Also available in Russian.

Environmental Financing Strategy for the Municipal Water and Wastewater Sectors in the Ukraine, 2003

Also available in Russian.

Good practices of public environmental expenditure management in transition economies, 2003

This document build upon and update the St. Petersburg Guidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy; the St Petersburg Guidelines had become an internationally-acknowledged framework for evaluating the performance of public environmental funds since their endorsement within the “Environment for Europe” process in 1995.

Also available in Russian.

See also Recommendation of the Council on Good Practices for PublicEnvironmental Expenditure Management, 2006

Analytical tool for multi-yea municipal investment planning in Yekaterinburg, Russia, 2003

The scope of work includes all actions necessary to develop realistic multi-year investment plans for municipal environmental infrastructure in this Russian city and to link these plans to the city annual budgets.

See also MIP software for Russian cities: User's manual

Multi-yea municipal investment planning in the city of Lutsk, Ukraine, 2003

This document constitutes a report of work conducted for development of a Multi-Year Financial Plan (MIP) for the City of Lutsk, Ukraine. It presents the entire range of elements implemented as well as a background to the project. This report is divided into the following sections: 1) Background on Ukrainian Local Governments; 2) Characteristics of the City of Lutsk; 3) MIP for the City of Lutsk; 4) Recommendations.

Also available in Ukranian.

See also Ukranian toolkit - MIP: user manual.

Developing effective packages of environmental policy instruments in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia: Experience and directions for reform, 2003

The purpose of this report is to outline the principal approaches and directions for comprehensive and coherent reforms of environmental policy instruments in the NIS, based on the analysis of the existing policy implementation framework.

Linkages between Environmental Assessment and Environmental Permitting in the Context of the Regulatory Reform in EECCA Countries, 2003

This paper has been developed with a view to assist reforms of environmental assessment and environmental permitting in EECCA countries.

English-Russian Glossary of Terms Used in Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Promotion, 2002

This glossary is addressed to policy and lawmakers, inspectors, other government officials, NGO and academics, consultants, etc. - all those engaged with enforcement and compliance promotion activities. To a large extent, it is designed to create a shared East/West understanding of the environmental enforcement and compliance promotion terminology. However, the glossary may be helpful not only as an analytical document, but also as a means to help strengthen regional and international networking.

Environmental and natural resources management expenditure in the Republic of Moldova, 2002

The main objective for undertaking a survey on environmental and natural resources management expenditure in Moldova is to provide information and analysis on developments on environmental financing in the private and public sectors. The results assisted in facilitating reporting and provided recommendations for the report on “Financing Trends in the NIS” for the Environmental for Europe - Kiev Conference in May 2003.

Also available in Russian.

Extension of the feasible model to include municipal solid waste management: Novgorod case study, 2002

The present report constitutes the final case study report for the Novgorod region
in Russia.

Also available in Russian.

Performance review of the national environmental fund of Moldova and the Chisinau municipal environmental fund, 2002

The major objective of the review was to conduct an independent and objective evaluation of all aspects of the performance of the Moldavian National Environmental Protection Fund and the Chisinau Municipal Environmental Fund in relation to internationally recognized standards, i.e. those contained in the St Petersburg guidelines on environmental funds in the transition to a market economy.

Also available in Russian.

Streamlining the use of economic instruments of environmental policy in the Rostov oblast, Russia, 2002

The scope of this project is based on the priority measures to improve economic instruments of environmental policy in the Rostov Oblast that are identified in the 2001 Regional Environmental Action Plan (REAP) for the oblast: appropriate differentiation of pollution charges and “fees for the use of water resources”, improved revenue collection and disbursement, and using a wider range of economic incentives.

Georgia: Implementation of a system of environmental expenditure statistics, 2001

The purpose of this report is to present the revised Georgian methodology for environmental data collection and dissemination. This methodology is to the extent possible consistent with comparable EUROSTAT and OECD methodologies.

Environmental Expenditure in the NIS Russian Country Report, 2001

The purpose of this report is to present data on environmental expenditure data for Russia. The major purpose for collecting environmental expenditure data is to assess the value of real resources (such as capital, labour, etc.) devoted to environmental protection activities.

Also available in Russian.

Municipal Water and Wastewater Sector in Georgia, Environmental Financing Strategy, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for Georgia is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final contribution by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Municipal Water and Wastewater Sector in Georgia: Background Analysis for the Financing Strategy, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for the Republic of Georgia is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and
to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final background analyses by the consultant.

Also available in Georgian.

Short Justification for the Municipal Water Services Financing Strategy,Kazakhstan, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for the Kazakhstan is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final contribution by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Municipal Water Services, Kazakhstan Background Analysis for the Financing Strategy, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for Kazakhstan is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final background analyses by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Municipal Water and Wastewater Sector in Moldova Environmental Financing Strategy, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for the Republic of Moldova is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final contribution by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Short Justification for the Municipal Water and Wastewater Financing Strategy, Pskov, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for the Pskov region of the Russian Federation is to determine a realistic, agreed and
affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final contribution by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Background Analyses for the Municipal Water and Wastewater Financing Strategy, Pskov, Russia, 2001

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for the Pskov region of the Russian Federation is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final background analyses by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Capacity screening of oblast environmental funds in Ukraine, 2001

 

Environmental Expenditure in the NIS Georgian Country Report, 2000

The purpose of this report is to present data on environmental expenditure data for Georgia. The major purpose for collecting environmental expenditure data is to assess the value of real resources (such as capital, labour, etc.) devoted to environmental protection activities.

Also available in Russian.

Moldova: Background Analyses for the Environmental Financing Strategy, 2000

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater environmental financing strategy for the Republic of Moldova is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The environmental financing strategy has been developed in an iterative
process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final background analyses by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Short Justification of the Novgorod Environmental Financing Strategy, 2000

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater financing strategy for Novgorod region of the Russian Federation is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The water and wastewater financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final contribution by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Novgorod, Russia: Background Analyses for the Environmental Financing Strategy, 2000

The purpose of the municipal water and wastewater environmental financing strategy for Novgorod region of the Russian Federation is to determine a realistic, agreed and affordable service and to demonstrate how environmental expenditure can be financed. The environmental financing strategy has been developed in an iterative process in a dialogue with the finance, environmental and other relevant authorities. This report presents the final background analyses by the consultant.

Also available in Russian.

Performance review of the Kazakh State Environmental Protection Fund, 2000

The major objective of the Review was to conduct an independent and objective evaluation of all aspects of the performance of the Kazakh State Environmental Protection Fund against internationally recognised standards, i.e. those contained in the St. Petersburg Guidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy.

Also available in Russian.

Review of the Slovenian Environmental Development Fund, 2000

The overall objectives of the Fund reviews are to help Environmental Funds in CEECs achieve the greatest environmental benefits possible with the scarce financial resources available to them and; to enable Funds to become more effective instruments for facilitating the evolution and application of market-based mechanisms for financing environmental investments.

Многолетний инвестиционный план города Лежайска на 2000 – 2005, 2000

The purpose of this work was to develop a multi-year investment plan (MIP), covering strategic investment expenditure for the period 2000-2005.

Available only in Russian.

Environment in the transition to a market economy, 1999

The book showed that economic transition reforms had provided a crucial stimulus for environmental improvement. Nonetheless, it revealed that many serious problems remained, and others had grown worse over the assessed period: in many countries of the former Soviet Union in particular, economic crises and political stagnation had impeded environmental protection efforts.

Review of the Czech State Environment Fund, 1999

The EAP Task Force was engaged on a series of voluntary reviews of environmental funds in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) under the aegis of the Funds Network, which is supported in CEE by the European Union’s (EU) Phare Programme. Each review examines the operations of a specific fund and identifies institutional strengthening measures that would enhance fund effectiveness and efficiency. Reviews generally cover the major areas addressed by the St. Petersburg  uidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy (OECD, 1995).

Review of the Estonian Environmental Fund, 1998

The EAP Task Force was engaged on a series of voluntary reviews of environmental funds in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) under the aegis of the Funds Network, which is supported in CEE by the European Union’s (EU) Phare Programme. Each review examines the operations of a specific fund and identifies institutional strengthening measures that would enhance fund effectiveness and efficiency. Reviews generally cover the major areas addressed by the St. Petersburg  uidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy (OECD, 1995).

Swapping debt for the environment: The Polish Ecofund, 1998

The Task Force, in cooperation with the European Union’s Phare Programme, reviewed the operations of the Polish EcoFund (Poland’s debt-for-environment swap fund). Using the St. Petersburg Guidelines as a benchmark, the review set out to examine EcoFund’s operations, identify institutional strengthening measures that could enhance the fund’s effectiveness and highlight lessons learned by the fund which could be helpful to other funds in the region.

Also available in Russian.

Sourcebook on environmental funds in economies in transition, 1997

The Sourcebook on Environmental Funds provides basic information and data on the revenue, expenditure, main features and activities of twenty-one environmental funds in CEE and EECCA, as of 1997. The Sourcebook gives an overview of different models of environmental funds and different operational procedures.

The St Petersburg guidelines on environmental funds in the transition to a market economy, 1995

These Guidelines identify the criteria which Funds should apply in order to be environmentally effective and financially efficient.

Also available in Russian.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Green Growth and Environmental Governance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia

 

Related Documents

 

The Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme for Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries

 

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