Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populated country, and the largest archipelagic
one. Vibrant economic growth has lifted millions of people out of poverty. Economic
success, however, has come at a high environmental cost. Rapid land-use change and
reliance on fossil energy make Indonesia one of the world’s largest greenhouse gas
emitters. Deforestation and pollution are putting pressure on its megadiverse ecosystems.
Environmental services such as water supply, sanitation and waste management need
to be further expanded and improved. Advancing to a greener economy will require continued
efforts to develop policies, strengthen institutions and secure sufficient resources.This
is the first Green Growth Policy Review of Indonesia. It examines progress towards
sustainable development and green growth, with a special emphasis on the nexus of
land use, ecosystems and climate change.