Latest Documents


  • 9-August-2010

    English

    Costs, Revenues and Effectiveness of the Copenhagen Accord Emission Pledges for 2010 - Environment Working Paper No. 22

    Many countries have pledged targets or actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This working paper examines the costs and effectiveness of these pledges, using the OECD’s ENV-Linkages computable general equilibrium model.

  • 9-August-2010

    English

    Water - The right price can encourage efficiency and investment

    Climate change and over-use of water will mean that nearly one in every two people will live in water-stressed areas by 2030. Households, industry and agriculture will increasingly compete for water, leaving little to sustain ecosystems.

  • 5-August-2010

    English

    Towards Global Carbon Pricing: Direct and Indirect Linking of Carbon Markets - Environment Working Paper No. 20

    Emissions trading systems (ETS) can play a major role in a cost-effective climate policy framework. This working paper shows that the potential gains to be reaped are so large, that substantial efforts in this domain are warranted.

  • 5-August-2010

    English

    Buying and Cancelling Allowances as an Alternative to Offsets for the Voluntary Market: A Preliminary Review of Issues and Options - Environment Working Paper No. 21

    This working paper explores scenarios under which, as an alternative to offsets, voluntary buyers could instead buy and cancel allowances from compliance markets.

  • 4-August-2010

    English

    Voluntary Carbon Markets: How can they serve climate policies - Environment Working Paper No. 19

    This working paper aims to examine how voluntary carbon markets can provide a valuable contribution to strengthening domestic and international climate policies.

  • 3-August-2010

    English

    Ten new and updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 22 July 2010

    Ten new and updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 22 July 2010

    Related Documents
  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 442B: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse (CBA/JN strain) is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a concurrent negative control group and a positive control group. The experimental schedule is during 6 days. Thereafter, the animals are killed and a single cell suspension of lymph node cells (LNC) is prepared. The procedure for preparing the LNC is crucial, in particular for the small lymph nodes in NC animals. Then the BrdU content in DNA of lymphocytes is measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. This study includes: measurements (weighing, BrdU) and clinical daily observations. The results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI) obtained by calculation from the mean BrdU labelling index. The SI should be ¡Ý1.6 before further evaluation of the test material as a potential skin sensitizer is warranted.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment

    This Guideline is designed to assess the effects of prolonged exposure of chemicals to the life-cycle of the sediment-dwelling freshwater dipteran Chironomus sp. First instar chironomid larvae are exposed to five concentrations of the test chemical in sediment-water systems. The test substance is spiked into the water or alternatively the sediment, and first instar larvae are subsequently introduced into test beakers in which the sediment and water concentrations have been stabilised. Chironomid emergence, time to emergence, and sex ratio of the fully emerged and alive midges are assessed. Emerged adults are transferred to breeding cages, to facilitate swarming, mating and oviposition. The number of egg ropes produced and their fertility are assessed. From these egg ropes, first instar larvae of the 2nd generation are obtained. These larvae are placed into freshly prepared test beakers (spiking procedure as for the 1st generation) to determine the viability of the 2nd generation through an assessment of their emergence, time to emergence and the sex ratio of the fully emerged and alive midges. All data are analysed either by a regression model to estimate the concentration that would cause X% reduction in the relevant endpoint, or by using hypothesis testing to determine a No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC).

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell division during or after exposure to the test substance. This Test Guideline allows the use of protocols with and without the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B allows for the identification and selective analysis of micronucleus frequency in cells that have completed one mitosis, because such cells are binucleate. This Test Guideline also allows the use of protocols without cytokinesis block provided there is evidence that the cell population analysed has undergone mitosis.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 209: Activated Sludge, Respiration Inhibition Test (Carbon and Ammonium Oxidation)

    This Test Guideline is designed to assess the effects of a substance on micro-organisms from activated sludge of waste-water treatment plants by measuring their respiration rate (carbon and/or ammonium oxidation) as oxygen consumption. The test results may also serve as an indicator of suitable non-inhibitory concentrations of test substances to be used in biodegradability tests. The test allows the determination of ECx and/or NOEC values of the test substance. The inhibition of three different oxygen uptakes may be determined, i.e. total, heterotrophic only, and that due to nitrification in the absence and presence of N-allylthiourea, a specific nitrification inhibitor. For obtaining both NOEC and ECx, six controls and five treatment concentrations in a geometric series with five replicates are recommended. In each test vessel, test mixtures containing water, synthetic sewage feed and the test substance are incubated at the pH of 7.5 ±0.5 and the temperature within 20±2°C under forced aeration to keep the dissolved oxygen concentration above 60-70% saturation. The oxygen consumption is measured after 3 hours of exposure and additional measurements at 30 minutes of exposure can be performed in the case that the test substance is rapidly degraded.

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