The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method, described in mouse (CBA/J strain), is based on measurement of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by bioluminescence as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a concurrent negative control group and, if appropriate, a positive control group. The experimental schedule is during 8 days. The time from animal sacrifice to measurement of ATP should not exceed 30 min. The procedure from excision of lymph nodes to ATP measurement should be kept uniform for each animal and completed within 20 minutes. The luciferin/luciferase method is applied to measure the bioluminescence in Relative Luminescence Units (RLU). This study includes: measurements (weighing, RLU), and clinical daily observations. The results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI) obtained by calculation. The SI should be ¡Ý1.8 before further evaluation of the test material as a potential skin sensitizer is warranted.
This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to estimate the acute oral toxicity of substances to birds, and it provides three testing options: (1) limit dose test, (2) LD50-slope test, and (3) LD50-only test. The LD50-slope and LD50-only options are sequential testing procedures. The test method selected will depend on whether or not a definitive median dose (LD50) and slope of the dose-response curve are both needed. The limit dose test is the preferred test when toxicity is expected to be low and lethality is unlikely at the limit dose. The limit dose should be adequate for assessment purposes, and it is usually 2000 mg/kg-bwt. Five or ten birds are tested at the limit dose in addition to a control group. The LD50-slope test is the preferred test when regulatory or other requirements determine that the slope of the dose-response curve and/or the confidence interval is required in addition to an estimate of the LD50. This is a 3- or 4-stage test with 24 or 34 birds in addition to a control group. The LD50-only test is the preferred test when regulatory or other requirements determine that only the median lethal dose is required but neither the slope of the dose response curve or the confidence interval for the LD50 is required. This may be the appropriate test to estimate a percentile of a species sensitivity distribution of LD50s and to provide information for product labelling purposes. This test has two stages, with 14 birds in addition to a control group.
Software to be used with TG 223. Click here. Software not part of the Mutual Acceptance of Data.
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Technological innovation can lower the cost of achieving environmental objectives. As such, understanding the linkages between environmental policy and technological innovation in achieving environmental objectives is important.
This document provides information on current/planned activities related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials in OECD member and non-member countries that attended at the 7th meeting of OECD’s Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (Paris France, 7-9 July 2010).
The objective of this document, Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials, is to assist sponsors in the development of Dossier Development Plans (DDPs).
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Analysis of the Scope of Energy Subsidies And Suggestions for the G-20 Initiative, IEA, OPEC, OECD, World Bank Joint Report, prepared for submission to the G-20 Summit Meeting Toronto (Canada), 26-27 June 2010
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Non-hazardous recyclable materials play an increasing role from both economic and environmental perspectives. The policy challenge is to facilitate legitimate trade in non-hazardous recyclable materials while ensuring that trade in hazardous materials is subjected to appropriate controls.
Recent work in Moldova and the Kyrgyz Republic proved that addressing this general challenge requires different tools and actions and different levels of effort, depending on country-specific situation.
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Final report to the donor
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The paper is based on a desk review, discussions with stakeholders, and joint work with the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Moldova on drafting the so-called "Institutional Development Plan".