Latest Documents


  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 429: Skin Sensitisation - Local Lymph Node Assay

    The basic principle underlying the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) in mouse is that sensitizers induce a primary proliferation of lymphocytes in the auricular lymph nodes draining the site of chemical application. This proliferation is proportional to the dose applied and provides a measurement of sensitisation. The method described is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a negative control group treated with the vehicle only, and a positive control, as appropriate. The experimental schedule of the assay is during 6 days. Thereafter, the animals are killed and a cell suspension of lymph node cells is prepared. The incorporation of 3H-methyl thymidine is measured by ¦Â-scintillation counting as disintegrations per minute (DPM). The Test Guideline includes performance standards that can be used to evaluate the validation status of new and/or modified test methods that are functionally and mechanistically similar to the LLNA. A reduced LLNA approach which could use up to 40% fewer animals is also described as an option. This study includes: measurements (weighing, DPM), and clinical daily observations. Results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI).The SI is obtained by calculation and should be ¡Ý3 before classification of the test material as a skin sensitizer is warranted.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 442A: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: DA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method, described in mouse (CBA/J strain), is based on measurement of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by bioluminescence as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a concurrent negative control group and, if appropriate, a positive control group. The experimental schedule is during 8 days. The time from animal sacrifice to measurement of ATP should not exceed 30 min. The procedure from excision of lymph nodes to ATP measurement should be kept uniform for each animal and completed within 20 minutes. The luciferin/luciferase method is applied to measure the bioluminescence in Relative Luminescence Units (RLU). This study includes: measurements (weighing, RLU), and clinical daily observations. The results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI) obtained by calculation. The SI should be ¡Ý1.8 before further evaluation of the test material as a potential skin sensitizer is warranted.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 223: Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test

    This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to estimate the acute oral toxicity of substances to birds, and it provides three testing options: (1) limit dose test, (2) LD50-slope test, and (3) LD50-only test. The LD50-slope and LD50-only options are sequential testing procedures. The test method selected will depend on whether or not a definitive median dose (LD50) and slope of the dose-response curve are both needed. The limit dose test is the preferred test when toxicity is expected to be low and lethality is unlikely at the limit dose. The limit dose should be adequate for assessment purposes, and it is usually 2000 mg/kg-bwt. Five or ten birds are tested at the limit dose in addition to a control group. The LD50-slope test is the preferred test when regulatory or other requirements determine that the slope of the dose-response curve and/or the confidence interval is required in addition to an estimate of the LD50. This is a 3- or 4-stage test with 24 or 34 birds in addition to a control group. The LD50-only test is the preferred test when regulatory or other requirements determine that only the median lethal dose is required but neither the slope of the dose response curve or the confidence interval for the LD50 is required. This may be the appropriate test to estimate a percentile of a species sensitivity distribution of LD50s and to provide information for product labelling purposes. This test has two stages, with 14 birds in addition to a control group.

    Software to be used with TG 223. Click here. Software not part of the Mutual Acceptance of Data.

  • 15-July-2010

    English, , 1,581kb

    Climate policy and technological innovation and transfer: an overview of trends and recent empirical results

    Technological innovation can lower the cost of achieving environmental objectives. As such, understanding the linkages between environmental policy and technological innovation in achieving environmental objectives is important.

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  • 7-July-2010

    English

    Current Developments/Activities on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials

    This document provides information on current/planned activities related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials in OECD member and non-member countries that attended at the 7th meeting of OECD’s Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (Paris France, 7-9 July 2010).

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  • 7-July-2010

    English

    Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials: OECD Sponsorship Programme: First Revision

    The objective of this document, Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials, is to assist sponsors in the development of Dossier Development Plans (DDPs).

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  • 1-July-2010

    English, , 1,569kb

    G20 report on fossil fuel subsidies

    Analysis of the Scope of Energy Subsidies And Suggestions for the G-20 Initiative, IEA, OPEC, OECD, World Bank Joint Report, prepared for submission to the G-20 Summit Meeting Toronto (Canada), 26-27 June 2010

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  • 1-July-2010

    English, , 323kb

    Reducing barriers to international trade in non-hazardous recyclable materials: exploring the environmental and economic benefits, Part 1: A synthesis report

    Non-hazardous recyclable materials play an increasing role from both economic and environmental perspectives. The policy challenge is to facilitate legitimate trade in non-hazardous recyclable materials while ensuring that trade in hazardous materials is subjected to appropriate controls.

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  • 29-June-2010

    English

    Key principles, tools and approaches to improve mid-term budget planning for water supply and sanitation in EECCA

    Recent work in Moldova and the Kyrgyz Republic proved that addressing this general challenge requires different tools and actions and different levels of effort, depending on country-specific situation.

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  • 29-June-2010

    English, , 1,789kb

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