As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world’s energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.
This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to “green growth”, including the “greening” of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.
Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through “climate-conscious” urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy.
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In negotiation sessions leading up to COP 16 progress on outlining post-2012 market mechanisms has also been limited. The OECD and IEA have researched the possibility to expand carbon markets by granting broader access to developing countries.
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This policy brief highlights lessons learned from a decade of OECD and IEA policy analysis on the international competitiveness issue in climate policy and provides key policy messages.
This working paper demonstrates an approach to assess future risks and quantify the benefits of adaptation options at a city-scale, with application to flood risk in Mumbai.
The OECD Series on the Principles of Good Laboratory Practice and Compliance Monitoring comprises of guidance documents on various issues relating to Good Laboratory Practices and Compliance Monitoring.
This working paper highlights the importance of environmental management and governance in the agricultural sector; to present environmental goals, requirements, entry points, and strategies/approaches to capacity development for the environment (CDE) in this sector.
Understanding the extent and nature of fossil-fuel subsidies, especially in an international context, requires a consistent method for identifying and estimating the transfers associated with various support; a framework for aggregating them; and a set of common support metrics. This expert workshop aims to begin that process by bringing together national government experts on measuring tax expenditures and other forms of domestic
This working paper highlights the importance of environmental management and governance in the energy sector and presents environmental goals, requirements, entry points, and strategies/approaches to capacity development for the environment (CDE) in this sector.
This 2010 review of Japan's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in reducing the pollution burden, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. It includes coverage of policy for greening growth, implementation of environmental policies, climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and biodiversity.
The review finds that since the last review, Japan has made steady progress in addressing a range of environmental issues, notably air and water pollution, and the management of chemicals and waste. The energy intensity of the economy has continued to decrease, particularly in the industrial sector, and is among the lowest in OECD countries. Material intensity has also decreased.
At the same time, several more complex, long-term challenges have come to the fore: climate change, sound waste, materials management, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the last decade was characterised by sluggish economic growth, and environment and green innovation are targeted as key drivers of future growth and job creation in Japan's New Growth Strategy.
In his remarks for the launch of the Environmental Performance Review of Japan, Angel Gurría noted that "Japan has made good progress in addressing a range of traditional environmental problems including air and water pollution, and waste management."