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This paper contributes to the project on "Taxation, Innovation and the Environment". It presents a survey of firms’ responses to public incentives for energy innovation.
Against the background of a projected doubling of world greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century, this book explores feasible ways to abate them at least cost.
Ten new Test Guidelines and six updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 7 September 2009
As world leaders head into serious discussions in the coming weeks about how to address climate change, new OECD work will inform some of the most contentious isssues of the debate – those related to the costs involved. .
English, Excel, 236kb
Governments around the world are working towards an international agreement on actions to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas emissions at the Fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP15) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen at the end of 2009. Considering the costs and risks of inaction, taking action now, even in the midst of a global economic crisis, makes good economic sense. This Policy Brief
This revised Test Guideline has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity by the inhalation route for a subchronic duration (90 days), and to provide robust data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day during a 90 day (13 week) period to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b) filtered air (negative control), and/or c)
The method described by this Test Guideline provides information that allows hazard assessment for short-term exposure to a test article by inhalation, and allows the substance to be classified according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The test method is based on a stepwise procedure, each step using 3 animals of each sex (the preferred species is rat). Animals are exposed in
The objective of these chronic toxicity studies is to characterize the profile of a substance in a mammalian species (primarily rodents) following prolonged and repeated exposure.
The Test Guideline focuses on rodents and oral administration. Both sexes should be used. For rodents, at least 20 animals per sex per group should normally be used at each dose level, while for non-rodents a minimum of 4 per sex per group is
The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test method (BCOP) is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as 'ocular corrosives and severe irritants'. The BCOP uses isolated corneas from the eyes of cattle slaughtered for commercial purposes, thus avoiding the use of laboratory animals. Each treatment group (test substance, negative/positive controls) consists of a minimum of three eyes where the
The objective of a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study is to identify carcinogenic and the majority of chronic effects, and to determine dose-response relationships following prolonged and repeated exposure.
The rat is typically used for this study. For rodents, each dose group and concurrent control group intended for the carcinogenicity phase of the study should contain at least 50 animals of each sex,