Latest Documents


  • 29-August-2011

    English

    The Trade Effects of Phasing Out Fossil-Fuel Consumption Subsidies

    A co-ordinated multilateral removal of fossil-fuel consumption subsidies over the 2013-2020 period would increase global trade volumes by 0.1% by 2020, according to this report.

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  • 17-August-2011

    Albanian

  • 8-August-2011

    English

    Trade-Related Measures Based on Processes and Production Methods in the Context of Climate-Change Mitigation

    How is international trade affected by climate change mitigation measures relating to non-product-related processes and production methods (PPMs)? This study looks at PPM measures adopted in the United States, the European Union, Canada and other countries.

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  • 29-July-2011

    English

    Sources of Finance, Investment Policies and Plant Entry in the Renewable Energy Sector - Environment Working Paper No. 37

    This report looks specifically at the full array of public policies promoting investment in the renewable energy sector, and discusses their impact on plant entry into the market, with the support of case studies focusing on Germany, the U.S.A. and Australia.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 234: Fish Sexual Development Test

    This Test Guideline describes an assay that assesses early life-stage effects and potential adverse consequences of putative endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g. oestrogens, androgens and steroidogenesis inhibitors) on fish sexual development. In the test, fish are exposed, from newly fertilized egg until the completion of sexual differentiation at about 60 days post hatch, to at least three concentrations of the test substance dissolved in water. In each treatment level and control(s) group(s), a minimum of four replicates is recommended. At termination of the test, two core endpoints are measured in each fish: vitellogenin concentration from head and tail or from blood sampling, and proportion of males, females, intersex and undifferentiated fish through gonadal histology. In fish species possessing a genetic sex marker, the genetic sex is identified to determine sex reversal in individual fish. The combination of the two core endocrine endpoints, vitellogenin concentration and phenotypic (and possibly genotypic) sex ratio, enable the test to indicate the mode of action of the test chemical.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 456: H295R Steroidogenesis Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro screen for chemical effects on steroidogenesis, specifically the production of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). The human H295R adreno-carcinoma cell line, used for the assay, expresses genes that encode for all the key enzymes for steroidogenesis. After an acclimation period of 24 h in multi-well plates, cells are exposed for 48 h to seven concentrations of the test chemical in at least triplicate. Solvent and a known inhibitor and inducer of hormone production are run at a fixed concentration as negative and positive controls. At the end of the exposure period, cell viability in each well is analyzed. Concentrations of hormones in the medium can be measured using a variety of methods including commercially available hormone measurement kits and/or instrumental techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data are expressed as fold change relative to the solvent control and the Lowest-Observed-Effect-Concentration. If the assay is negative, the highest concentration tested is reported as the No-Observed-Effect-Concentration.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Case Study: Assessment of an Extended Chemical Category, the Short-chain Methacrylates, Targeted on Bioaccumulation

    This case study intends to illustrate this concept for the short chain methacrylates,originally composed of four chemicals, for the bioaccumulation endpoint. The OECD QSAR Toolbox identified about 160 chemicals potentially falling within the applicability domain of the original category, and the hypothesis tested in this case study is the possibility to predict the bioaccumulation potential for untested members of the category. The

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  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test

    The purpose of this test is to determine the effects of a substance on the growth of freshwater microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Exponentially growing test organisms are exposed to the test substance in batch cultures over a period of normally 72 hours.

    The system response is the reduction of growth in a series of algal cultures exposed to, at least, five concentrations of a test substance. Three replicates at each test concentration should be used. The response is evaluated as a function of the exposure concentration in comparison with the average growth of control cultures. The cultures are allowed unrestricted exponential growth under nutrient sufficient conditions (two alternative growth media: the OECD and the AAP) and continuous fluorescent illumination. Growth and growth inhibition are quantified from measurements of the algal biomass as a function of time. The limit test corresponds to one dose level of 100 mg/L. This study includes: the determination, at least daily, of the algal biomass; the measure of the pH (at the beginning and at the end); microscopic observation. This Test Guideline describes two response variables: average specific growth rate, and yield.

     

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Harmonising Climate Risk Management: Adaptation Screening and Assessment Tools for Development Co-operation - Environment Working Paper No. 36

    This Working Paper analyses set of tools targeted to screen climate change risks and focuses on the need to consider the experiences of users as well as developers, and to investigate the extent to which tools are meeting user needs.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 488: Transgenic Rodent Somatic and Germ Cell Gene Mutation Assays

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo assay that detects chemicals that may induce gene mutations. In this assay, transgenic rats or mice that contain multiple copies of chromosomally integrated plasmid or phage shuttle vectors are used. The transgenes contain reporter genes for the detection of various types of mutations induced by test substances. A negative control group and a minimum of 3 treatment groups of transgenic animals are treated for 28 consecutive days. Administration is usually followed by a 3-day period of time, prior to sacrifice, during which the agent is not administered and during which unrepaired DNA lesions are fixed into stable mutations. At the end of this 3-day period, the animals are sacrificed, genomic DNA is isolated from the tissue(s) of interest and purified. Mutations that have arisen during treatment are scored by recovering the transgene and analysing the phenotype of the reporter gene in a bacterial host deficient for the reporter gene. Mutant frequency, the reported parameter in these assays, is calculated by dividing the number of plaques/plasmids containing mutations in the transgene by the total number of plaques/plasmids recovered from the same DNA sample.

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