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Climate change and over-use of water will mean that nearly one in every two people will live in water-stressed areas by 2030. Households, industry and agriculture will increasingly compete for water, leaving little to sustain ecosystems.
Emissions trading systems (ETS) can play a major role in a cost-effective climate policy framework. This working paper shows that the potential gains to be reaped are so large, that substantial efforts in this domain are warranted.
This working paper explores scenarios under which, as an alternative to offsets, voluntary buyers could instead buy and cancel allowances from compliance markets.
This working paper aims to examine how voluntary carbon markets can provide a valuable contribution to strengthening domestic and international climate policies.
Ten new and updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 22 July 2010
The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse (CBA/JN strain) is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this
This Guideline is designed to assess the effects of prolonged exposure of chemicals to the life-cycle of the sediment-dwelling freshwater dipteran Chironomus sp. First instar chironomid larvae are exposed to five concentrations of the test chemical in sediment-water systems. The test substance is spiked into the water or alternatively the sediment, and first instar larvae are subsequently introduced into test beakers in which the
The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell
This Test Guideline is designed to assess the effects of a substance on micro-organisms from activated sludge of waste-water treatment plants by measuring their respiration rate (carbon and/or ammonium oxidation) as oxygen consumption. The test results may also serve as an indicator of suitable non-inhibitory concentrations of test substances to be used in biodegradability tests. The test allows the determination of ECx and/or NOEC
This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure that may be used for the hazard identification of irritant chemicals (substances and mixtures) in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) Category 2. It is based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), which in its overall design closely mimics the biochemical and physiological properties of the upper parts of the human skin. Cell