Latest Documents


  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 456: H295R Steroidogenesis Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro screen for chemical effects on steroidogenesis, specifically the production of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). The human H295R adreno-carcinoma cell line, used for the assay, expresses genes that encode for all the key enzymes for steroidogenesis. After an acclimation period of 24 h in multi-well plates, cells are exposed for 48 h to seven concentrations of the test chemical in at least triplicate. Solvent and a known inhibitor and inducer of hormone production are run at a fixed concentration as negative and positive controls. At the end of the exposure period, cell viability in each well is analyzed. Concentrations of hormones in the medium can be measured using a variety of methods including commercially available hormone measurement kits and/or instrumental techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data are expressed as fold change relative to the solvent control and the Lowest-Observed-Effect-Concentration. If the assay is negative, the highest concentration tested is reported as the No-Observed-Effect-Concentration.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Case Study: Assessment of an Extended Chemical Category, the Short-chain Methacrylates, Targeted on Bioaccumulation

    This case study intends to illustrate this concept for the short chain methacrylates,originally composed of four chemicals, for the bioaccumulation endpoint. The OECD QSAR Toolbox identified about 160 chemicals potentially falling within the applicability domain of the original category, and the hypothesis tested in this case study is the possibility to predict the bioaccumulation potential for untested members of the category. The

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  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test

    The purpose of this test is to determine the effects of a substance on the growth of freshwater microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Exponentially growing test organisms are exposed to the test substance in batch cultures over a period of normally 72 hours.

    The system response is the reduction of growth in a series of algal cultures exposed to, at least, five concentrations of a test substance. Three replicates at each test concentration should be used. The response is evaluated as a function of the exposure concentration in comparison with the average growth of control cultures. The cultures are allowed unrestricted exponential growth under nutrient sufficient conditions (two alternative growth media: the OECD and the AAP) and continuous fluorescent illumination. Growth and growth inhibition are quantified from measurements of the algal biomass as a function of time. The limit test corresponds to one dose level of 100 mg/L. This study includes: the determination, at least daily, of the algal biomass; the measure of the pH (at the beginning and at the end); microscopic observation. This Test Guideline describes two response variables: average specific growth rate, and yield.

     

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Harmonising Climate Risk Management: Adaptation Screening and Assessment Tools for Development Co-operation - Environment Working Paper No. 36

    This Working Paper analyses set of tools targeted to screen climate change risks and focuses on the need to consider the experiences of users as well as developers, and to investigate the extent to which tools are meeting user needs.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 488: Transgenic Rodent Somatic and Germ Cell Gene Mutation Assays

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo assay that detects chemicals that may induce gene mutations. In this assay, transgenic rats or mice that contain multiple copies of chromosomally integrated plasmid or phage shuttle vectors are used. The transgenes contain reporter genes for the detection of various types of mutations induced by test substances. A negative control group and a minimum of 3 treatment groups of transgenic animals are treated for 28 consecutive days. Administration is usually followed by a 3-day period of time, prior to sacrifice, during which the agent is not administered and during which unrepaired DNA lesions are fixed into stable mutations. At the end of this 3-day period, the animals are sacrificed, genomic DNA is isolated from the tissue(s) of interest and purified. Mutations that have arisen during treatment are scored by recovering the transgene and analysing the phenotype of the reporter gene in a bacterial host deficient for the reporter gene. Mutant frequency, the reported parameter in these assays, is calculated by dividing the number of plaques/plasmids containing mutations in the transgene by the total number of plaques/plasmids recovered from the same DNA sample.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test

    This Test Guideline describes an acute immobilisation assay on chronomids and is designed to complement existing Test Guidelines for chironomid chronic toxicity assays (TG 218, 219 and 233). The test method is based on TG 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. First instar Chironomus sp. larvae are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance in water-only vessels for a period of 48 hours. C. riparius is the preferred species but C. dilutus or C. yoshimatsui may also be used for the test. At least 20 larvae, preferably divided into four groups of five larvae each, should be used for each test concentration and for controls. In the definitive test, at least five test concentrations should be used, with a dilution water control and solvent control (if appropriate). Immobilisation is recorded at 24 and 48 hours, and if data allow, the EC50 is calculated at 24 and 48 hours. A limit test with a single concentration may also be performed at 100 mg/L of test substance or up to the practical limit of solubility (whichever is lowest) in order to demonstrate that the EC50 is greater than this concentration.

  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

    This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before mating and continuously through mating, gestation and weaning of their pups (F1 generation). At weaning, pups are selected and assigned to cohorts of animals for reproductive/developmental toxicity testing (cohort 1), developmental neurotoxicity testing (cohort 2) and developmental immunotoxicity testing (cohort 3). The F1 offspring receive further treatment with the test substance from weaning to adulthood. Clinical observations and pathology examinations are performed on all animals for signs of toxicity, with special emphasis on the integrity and performance of the male and female reproductive systems and the health, growth, development and function of the offspring. Part of cohort 1 (cohort 1B) may be extended to include an F2 generation; in this case, procedures for F1 animals will be similar to those for the P animals.

  • 22-July-2011

    English

    Strategies in the Chemicals Industry and Related Areas: Vienna, Austria, 13-14 November 2003 [PART 1]: Summary and Conclusions

    The focus of the Workshop was to show the various attempts to implement service-oriented strategies such as "Chemical Leasing" models in practice. Moreover the possible economic and environmental benefits as well as the possible obstacles and drawbacks should be elucidated. The conclusions were to give an assessment of the prospects of future development for such business models.

  • 22-July-2011

    English

    Technical Guidance Document on the Use of Socio-Economic Analysis in Chemical Risk Management Decision Making (2002)

    This is the third in a series of documents produced by the OECD as part of its work on socio-economic analysis. The other two are: Guidance for Conducting Retrospective Studies on Socio-Economic Analysis (1999) and Framework for Integrating Socio-Economic Analysis in Chemical Risk Management Decision Making (2000).

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  • 22-July-2011

    English

    Workshop Report on Consideration of Chemical Safety in Green Procurement; Seoul, Korea, 8-10 November 2005 (2006)

    The OECD workshop Consideration of Chemical Safety in Green Procurement was held in Seoul (Korea) on 8-10 November 2005. It was prepared by the Issue Team on Chemical Product Policy and hosted by the Korea Ministry of Environment and the Korea Environment Institute. On the basis of examples of existing product categories and criteria for selecting products within product categories, the workshop identified differences and

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