Latest Documents


  • 24-October-2017

    English

    Promoting Clean Urban Public Transportation and Green Investment in Kazakhstan

    This report discusses the main results of a project on how to reduce air pollution from urban public transport in Kazakhstan, by providing an analysis for designing a green public investment programme in this sector. This sector represents an opportunity for Kazakhstan to address key objectives in its environmental and climate-related policies as part of the country’s ambitions to transition to a green economic path of development. The investment programme is also designed to support the modernisation of the urban transport fleet in the country and stimulate the domestic market to shift to modern buses powered by clean fuels. The programme is foreseen to be implemented in two phases: the first covers the cities of Kostanay and Shymkent and the second, all major urban centres in Kazakhstan. These investments are expected to result in significant air improvement.

  • 23-October-2017

    English

    EU Water Initiative (EUWI): Water Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA)

    The objective of the European Union Water Initiative is to create the conditions for mobilising all available EU resources (human & financial), and to co-ordinate them to achieve the water-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in partner countries. This initiative was launched at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002.

  • 23-October-2017

    English

    Improving Domestic Financial Support Mechanisms in Moldova's Water and Sanitation Sector

    The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable: tariffs do not typically cover operational costs and capital investments are heavily funded by external development partners. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation, notably: 1) sufficient investment for the implementation of targets and obligations set in the national strategies, the Association Agreement with the EU, as well as Moldova’s international commitments (water-related Sustainable Development Goals, and the “Water-to-all” commitment); 2) the financial sustainability of operators; and 3) the affordability of WSS services for end-users, especially low-income segments of the population.

  • 17-October-2017

    English

    Groundwater Allocation - Managing Growing Pressures on Quantity and Quality

    Groundwater allocation determines who is able to use groundwater resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from groundwater, today and in the future. Building on the 2015 OECD publication Water Resources Allocation: Sharing Risks and Opportunities, this report focuses on groundwater and how its allocation can be improved in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness and social equity. Drawing on an analysis of groundwater’s distinctive features and nine case studies of groundwater allocation in a range of countries, the report provides practical policy guidance for groundwater allocation in the form of a "health check". This health check can be used to assess the performance of current arrangements and manage the transition towards improved allocation.

  • 16-October-2017

    English

    OECD Work Related to Endocrine Disrupters

    The OECD Environment, Safety and Health Programme takes actions to develop tools and relevant guidance to identify endocrine disrupting chemicals for the protection of human health and the environment. Based on scientific works and research efforts, standardised test methods can be adopted by OECD countries to detect and characterise hazards posed by endocrine disrupting chemicals.

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  • 10-October-2017

    English

    Mobilising investment in clean energy infrastructure

    Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.

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  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 318: Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials in Simulated Environmental Media

    This test guideline describes a test procedure to gain information on dispersion stability of manufactured nanomaterials in simulated environmental media. The main purpose of this guideline is to assess the ability of a nanomaterial to attain a colloidal dispersion and to conserve this dispersion under environmentally relevant conditions. The test procedure involves a dispersion of the nanomaterial with the aid of a calibrated sonication procedure and the determination of the mass concentration of the nanomaterial in a set of test vials while the particles undergo homoagglomeration and settling in environments of different hydrochemistry

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 460: Fluorescein Leakage Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay that may be used for identifying water soluble ocular corrosives and severe irritants as defined by the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling, Category 1. The assay is performed in a well where a confluent monolayer of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) is used as a separation between two chambers. It uses a fluorescein dye as marqueur. The test substance has the potential to impair the junctions of the MDCK cells and thus to increase the monolayer¡¯s permeability. Consequently the fluorescein passes through the monolayer and the fluorescein leakage (FL) increases. The FL is calculated as a percentage of leakage relative to both a blank control and a maximum leakage control. The concentration of test substance that causes 20% FL (FL20, in mg/mL) is calculated and used in the prediction model for identification of ocular corrosive and severe irritants. The cut-off value of FL20 to identify water soluble chemicals as ocular corrosives/severe irritants is ¡Ü 100mg/mL. The FL test method should be part of a tiered testing strategy.

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study

    This revised Test Guideline 413 (TG 413) has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity by the inhalation route following repeated exposure for a period of 90 days, and to provide data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments.  It was updated in 2017 to enable the testing and characterisation of effects of nanomaterials tested.

    Groups of at least 10 male and 10 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day for 90 days to a) the test chemical at three or more concentration levels, b) filtered air (negative control), and/or c) the vehicle (vehicle control). Animals are generally exposed 5 days per week but exposure for 7 days per week is also allowed. Males and females are always tested, but they may be exposed at different concentration levels if it is known that one sex is more susceptible to a given test chemical. The results of the study include measurement and daily and detailed observations (haematology and clinical chemistry), as well as ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology. This Test Guideline allows the flexibility to include satellite (reversibility) groups, interim sacrifices, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung burden (LB) for particles, neurologic tests, and additional clinical pathology and histopathological evaluations in order to better characterize the toxicity of a test chemical.

  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)

    This Test Guideline describes a chronic oral toxicity test on adult worker honey bees under laboratory conditions over an exposure period of 10 days.

    Young bees (max. 2 days old) are exposed to 50 % (w/v) aqueous sucrose solution containing the test chemical by continuous and ad libitum feeding over a period of 10 days. Mortality and behavioural abnormalities are observed and recorded daily during the 10 day test period. The chronic effects of the test chemical are evaluated by comparing the results of the test chemical treated group to those of the respective control group. The test is designed for the determination of the following endpoints  LC50 (median Lethal Concentration) and the LDD50 (median Lethal Dietary Dose) values after 10 days of exposure, and NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) and NOEDD (No Observed Effect Dietary Dose).

     

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