Latest Documents


  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 305: Bioaccumulation in Fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure

    This Test Guideline describes a procedure for characterising the bioconcentration potential of substances in fish, using an aqueous (standard and minimised tests) or dietary exposure, under flow-through conditions (but semi-static regimes are permissible). Independent of the chosen exposure method, the bioconcentration fish test test consists of two phases: exposure (uptake) and post-exposure (depuration). During the uptake phase (usually 28 days but can be extended), a group of fish of one species is exposed to the test substances at one or more chosen concentrations (depending on the properties of the test substance). For the depuration phase they are then transferred to a medium free of the test substance, or fed with clean, untreated feed. A depuration phase is always necessary unless uptake of the substance during the uptake phase has been insignificant. In addition to the test concentration, a control group of fish is held without the test substance. The minimised aqueous exposure test is not run over a shorter period than the standard test but comprises less fish sampling. The dietary exposure bioconcentration fish test is used for substances where the aqueous exposure methodology is not practicable. In the three test methods the concentration of the test substance in the fish is followed through both phases of the test: the aqueous exposure test yields a bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the dietary approach yields a biomagnifications factor (BMF); greater emphasis is put on kinetic BCF estimation (when possible) next to estimating the BCF at steady state. BCF and BMF are expressed based on the total concentration in fish, i.e. per total wet weight of the fish, and as normalized to a fish with a 5% lipid content.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 455: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Stably Transfected Transactivation In Vitro Assays to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists

    This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provides the methodology of Stably Transfected Transactivation to detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists (ER TAs). It comprises mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor agonists and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the basis for this PBTG are: the Stably Transfected TA (STTA) assay using the (h) ERá-HeLa-9903 cell line, derived from a human cervical tumor, and the BG1Luc ER TA assay using the BG1Luc-4E2 cell line, derived from a human ovarian adenocarcinoma. The cell lines used in these assays express ER and have been stably transfected with an ER responsive luciferase reporter gene. The assays are used to identify chemicals that activate the ER following ligand binding, after which the receptor-ligand complex binds to specific DNA response elements and transactivates the reporter gene, resulting in increased cellular expression of a marker enzyme (e.g. luciferase in luciferase based systems). The enzyme then transforms the substrate to a bioluminescent product that can be quantitatively measured with a luminometer.These test methods are being proposed for screening and prioritisation purposes, but also provide mechanistic information that can be used in a weight of evidence approach.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 114: Viscosity of Liquids

    This Test Guideline describes methods to measure the viscosity of liquids. Most of the methods listed are appropriate for the investigation of Newtonian liquids. The measurement of non-Newtonian liquids is possible with the rotational viscometer. Viscosity measurements are carried out according to five methods: the capillary viscometer, the flow cup, the rotational viscometer, the rolling ball viscometer and the drawing ball viscometer. Each determination of viscosity should be made at a temperature of 20°C and at 40°C. At least two determinations should be made at each temperature. The viscosity measurement is to be carried out according to the standards in the case of capillary and forced ball viscometers. In the case of rotational viscometers, the specification of a viscosity is appropriate only for Newtonian fluids. For non- Newtonian fluids, the results obtained are preferred in table or graph form, preferably in the order of increasing shear rate.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 109: Density of Liquids and Solids

    This Test Guideline lists methods for determining the density of liquids and solids, giving only a succinct description of them. The density of a substance is the quotient of its mass and its volume and is expressed in SI units as kg/m3 at a specified temperature. Several methods are for liquid substance only: hydrometer, immersed body method (both are buoyancy methods) and oscillating densitometer. These methods are applicable to liquids with a dynamic viscosity below 5 Pa.s for hydrometer and oscillating densitometer and below 20 Pa.s for immersed body method. The method for solids only is the air comparison pycnometer, and pour and tap. The methods for both liquids and solids are the hydrostatic balance (a buoyancy method) and the pycnometer. The dynamic viscosity of liquids to be investigated should not exceed 5 Pa.s for the hydrostatic balance, and should not be above 500 Pa.s for the pycnometer.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the necessary controls, including a carrier control if necessary. For the fathead minnow, four replicate test vessels are used for each treatment level and control(s). During the conduct of the assay, the egg production is measured quantitatively daily in each test vessel. At termination of the 21-day exposure period, two biomarker endpoints are measured in males and females separately, as indicators of endocrine activity of the test chemical; these endpoints are vitellogenin and secondary sexual characteristics. Gonads of both sexes are also preserved and histopathology may be evaluated to assess the reproductive fitness of the test animals and to add to the weight of evidence of other endpoints.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

    The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test concentration are used. The test duration is 21 days. The total number of living offspring produced per parent animal which does not die accidentally or inadvertently during the test and the number of living offspring produced per surviving parent animal at the end of the test are reported. The study report also includes: the daily counting of the offspring, the daily recording of the parent mortality, the weekly measurement of oxygen concentration, temperature, hardness and pH values and the determination of the concentrations of test substance. Optionally other effects can be reported, including the sex ratio of the offspring. The reproductive output of the animals exposed to the test substance is analysed, by comparing it with that of the control in order to determine the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and hence the no observed effect concentration (NOEC), and by estimating the concentration that causes an x % reduction in reproductive output by means of a regression analysis.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 405: Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance (liquids, solids and aerosols) by application on the eye. This Test Guideline is intended preferably for use with albino rabbit. The test substance is applied in a single dose in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. The initial test uses an animal; the dose level depends on the test substance nature. A confirmatory test should be made if a corrosive effect is not observed in the initial test, the irritant or negative response should be confirmed using up to two additional animals. It is recommended that it be conducted in a sequential manner in one animal at a time, rather than exposing the two additional animals simultaneously. The duration of the observation period should be sufficient to evaluate fully the magnitude and reversibility of the effects observed. The eyes should be examined at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after test substance application. The ocular irritation scores should be evaluated in conjunction with the nature and severity of lesions, and their reversibility or lack of reversibility. Use of topical anesthetics and systemic analgesics to avoid or minimize pain and distress in ocular safety testing procedures is described.

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the OECD Clearing House on New Chemicals Parallel Process

    This document provides detailed guidance for both new chemical notifiers and jurisdictions who wish to participate in a “parallel process” which enables a company to declare to all affected countries at the time of first notification that it wants them to cooperate and share information. The hazard assessment is developed by the ‘lead’ jurisdiction and then utilized by other participating jurisdictions.

  • 26-September-2012

    English

    Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) Global Forum

    Organised jointly by the OECD and the IEA, this seminar held on 26-27 September 2012 aimed to promote dialogue and enhance understanding between a wide range of countries on technical issues in the international climate change negotiations. This seminar was an informal meeting outside of the UNFCCC negotiations and discussions are non-attributed.

  • 25-September-2012

    English

    Ежегодная встреча СРГ ПДООС, 2012 г., Oсло, Норвегия

    Ежегодная встреча СРГ ПДООС, принимающей стороной которой выступило Министрество Окружающей Среды Норвегии, прошла 24-25 сентября 2012 г. в Осло.

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