Latest Documents


  • 13-February-2015

    English

    The Benefits of International Co-authorship in Scientific Papers: the Case of Wind Energy Technologies - Environment Working Paper

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries.

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  • 12-February-2015

    English

    Public Interventions and Private Climate Finance Flows: Empirical Evidence from Renewable Energy Financing - Environment Working Paper

    This study uses a unique dataset of investment flows to analyse the role of two categories of public interventions (finance and policies) in mobilising flows of private climate finance worldwide and in the more specific context of flows to and in developing countries. The objectives are threefold. Find out more.

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  • 12-February-2015

    English

    Material Resources, Productivity and the Environment

    Improving resource productivity and ensuring a sustainable resource and materials management building on the principle of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) is a central element of green growth policies. It helps to improve the environment, by reducing the amount of resources that the economy requires and diminishing the associated environmental impacts, and sustain economic growth by securing adequate supplies of materials and improving competitiveness. To be successful such policies need to be founded on a good understanding of how minerals, metals, timber or other materials flow through the economy throughout their life cycle, and of how this affects the productivity of the economy and the quality of the environment. This report contributes to this understanding. It describes the material basis of OECD economies and provides a factual analysis of material flows and resource productivity in OECD countries in a global context. It considers the production and consumption of materials, as well as their international flows and available stocks, and the environmental implications associated with their use. It also describes some of the challenges and opportunities associated with selected materials and products that are internationally-significant, both in economic and environmental terms (aluminium, copper, iron and steel, paper, phosphate rock and rare earth elements).

  • 10-February-2015

    English

    If the tortoise can do it, anyone can: greening household behaviour - Insights Blog

    Please join me in an ode to the giant tortoise, recently confirmed to be back from near extinction on the Galapagos Espanola Island after conservation work that began forty years ago. Whoever thought this waddly wild wonk would be a model for humans to improve environment through adept household behaviour?

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  • 9-February-2015

    English

    What are the channels for investment in sustainable energy?

    This report develops a framework that classifies investments according to different types of financing instruments and investment funds, and highlights the risk mitigants and transaction enablers that intermediaries can use to mobilise institutionally held capital.

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  • 9-February-2015

    English

    Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy

    What are the channels for investment in sustainable energy infrastructure by institutional investors (e.g. pension funds, insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds) and what factors influence investment decisions? What key policy levers and risk mitigants can governments use to facilitate these types of investments? What emerging channels (such as green bonds, YieldCos and direct project investment) hold significant promise for scaling up institutional investment?

    This report develops a framework that classifies investments according to different types of financing instruments and investment funds, and highlights the risk mitigants and transaction enablers that intermediaries (such as public green investment banks and other public financial institutions) can use to mobilise institutionally held capital. This framework can also be used to identify where investments are or are not flowing, and focus attention on how governments can support the development of potentially promising investment channels and consider policy interventions that can make institutional investment in sustainable energy infrastructure more likely.

     

  • 6-February-2015

    English

    Launch of 2 OECD Test Guidelines on human hazard endpoint skin sensitisation

    The OECD has just published two new Test Guidelines on human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS).

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  • 5-February-2015

    English

    Test No. 442D: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - ARE-Nrf2 Luciferase Test Method

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS).

    This Test Guideline (TG) provides an in vitro procedure (the ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method) used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS.

    The second key event on the adverse outcome pathway leading to skin sensitisation takes place in the keratinocytes and includes inflammatory responses as well as gene expression associated with specific cell signalling pathways such as the antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE)-dependent pathways. The test method described in this Test Guideline (ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method) is proposed to address this second key event. The cell line contains the luciferase gene under the transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter fused with an ARE element from a gene that is known to be up-regulated by contact sensitisers. The luciferase signal reflects the activation by sensitisers of endogenous Nrf2 dependent genes. This allows quantitative measurement (by luminescence detection) of luciferase gene induction, using well established light producing luciferase substrates, as an indicator of the activity of the Nrf2 transcription factor in cells following exposure to electrophilic test substances.

    Currently, the only in vitro ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method covered by this Test Guideline is the KeratinoSensTM test method. Performance standards have been developed to enable the validation of similar test methods.

  • 5-February-2015

    English

    Test No. 442C: In Chemico Skin Sensitisation - Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA)

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS).

    This Test Guideline provides an in chemico procedure (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay – DPRA) used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS.

    The DPRA is proposed to address the molecular initiating event leading to the skin sensitisation, namely protein reactivity, by quantifying the reactivity of test chemicals towards model synthetic peptides containing either lysine or cysteine. Cysteine and lysine percent peptide depletion values are then calculated and used in a prediction model to categorise a substance in one of four classes of reactivity for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers.

  • 30-January-2015

    English

    OECD Substitution and Alternatives Assessment Toolbox

    This toolbox is a compilation of resources relevant to chemical substitution and alternatives assessments. Alternative assessments are processes for identifying, comparing and selecting safer alternatives to replace hazardous chemicals with the objective of promoting sustainable production and consumption.

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