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The objective of the present Guidance Document (GD) is to establish an Integrated 2 Approach to Testing and Assessment (IATA) for hazard identification of serious eye 3 damage and eye irritation potential of test chemicals (or the absence thereof) that 4 provides adequate information for classification and labelling according to the United 5 Nations Globally Harmonised System (UN GHS, 2015).
A dirty, rundown environment has quantifiable costs for the economy and the well-being of societies. For example, the welfare costs of air pollution from road transport alone are estimated to amount to around 1.7 trillion USD in OECD countries, 1.4 trillion USD in China and 0.5 trillion in India.
The consequences of degradation of environmental quality as well as the consequences of environmental policies are typically unevenly distributed. In general, poorer countries and lower income households are more severely affected by environmental degradation and at the same time have less capacity to adapt.
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of the macroeconomic relationship between environmentally related taxes and inequality in income sources. The analysis also investigates whether this relationship differs between countries which have implemented environmental tax reforms (ETRs) and ones which have not.
New pesticides guidance has been finalised that harmonises the way terrestrial field dissipation studies (TFDs) are conducted in different regions of the world.
This workshop discussed how public policy can be used to facilitate climate-resilient infrastructure, based on the experiences of practitioners, government officials and other experts. It focused on national policies and initiatives in OECD and emerging economies, and aimed to identify emerging examples of good practice, implementation challenges and evidence gaps.
Nanotechnology is an emerging and promising field for advanced applications in industrial, commercial and medical sectors, and nanomaterials can be found today in sunscreens, deodorants and textiles. Yet these nanomaterials, which are increasing in number, are entering waste streams as part of end-of-life products along with conventional waste, without any real understanding of their environmental impacts or health risks on human beings and living organisms.
This report provides a literature review on four specific waste treatment processes (recycling, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment). While state-of-the-art waste treatment facilities may collect, divert or eliminate nanomaterials from these waste streams, the report concludes that knowledge gaps associated with their final disposal remain, underlining the need for further research in this area.
New report describes OECD's on-line Pesticide Risk Indicators (PRIs) database, and how it can be used. The database includes information on existing PRIs which are used by governments to track trends in risk resulting from the use of agricultural pesticides. The report summarises information on each indicator in the database, including the purpose of the indicator, requirements for data input, user friendliness and additional features.
“If He holds back the waters, there is drought; if He lets them loose, they devastate the land”. To be fair, that was in the days before governments played “a key role in developing targeted policy responses to market failures that impede the mitigation and allocation of drought and flood risks”, as the OECD report on Mitigating Droughts and Floods in Agriculture puts it.
Paris is a beautiful city but has an ugly problem with air pollution. Using 2 wheels to get to work, one becomes acutely aware of this insidious addiction to cars, and the “essence” of the problem, DIESEL.