This document presents case studies of instruments used to address non-point sources of water pollution in Denmark, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and in the Chesapeake Bay area of the United States.
The OECD Working Party on National Environmental Policy addressed over the period 2003-2006 the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of mixes of instruments used for environmental policy in a few selected areas.
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OECD is working closely with other Inter-governmental Organisations producing environment-related Outlooks in 2006-2008. This co-operation strengthens the coherence and complementarities between the Outlooks, and minimises any duplication.
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This case studies report is part of the OECD effort to develop guidance for regulatory applications of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship [(Q)SAR] models, and emphasizes the use of programme-specific case studies.
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Societies produce ever-growing quantities of solid waste, from packaging to abandoned televisions and cars. Disposing of this waste, often by burying it in landfills or burning it, produces significant soil contamination, as well as air and water pollution. It is particularly important to manage hazardous solid waste safely and efficiently.One way of limiting the scale of the problem is to recycle waste where it is economic to do so.
This report surveys the empirical (economic) literature, asking whether there indeed is any evidence of different effects on the rate and direction of technological change associated with different environmental policy instruments.