This working paper provides a conceptual backdrop for urban economic impact assessment of climate change and its specific aim is to provide both a conceptual and a methodological framework for OECD work in this area.
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The key objectives of the conference were to exchange experiences on the good practices and trends in environmental compliance assurance in OECD countries and major emerging economies based on the draft project report; and agree on a limited number of emerging compliance assurance issues.
While political will is necessary to tackle climate change, financial measures are needed to keep down the cost of action. According to Angel Gurría, "Ministers of Finance share a common responsibility to help shape cost-effective policies to respond to climate change."
A new OECD book on sustainable development will practice what it preaches by using innovative low-carbon publishing technology for sales in far-flung global markets.
This report presents three case studies to illustrate the relationship between environmental policy and technological innovation.
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This guidance document focuses on microbiological efficacy testing. It covers efficacy testing of articles treated with antimicrobials in the manufacturing process with the intention of the achieving an external effect.
This Test guideline describes studies on phototransformation in water to determine the potential effects of solar irradiation on chemicals in surface water, considering direct photolysis only.
It is designed as a tiered approach. The Tier 1 is based on a theoretical screen. The rate of decline of a test chemical in a direct photolysis study is generally assumed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. If the maximum possible losses is estimated to be superior or equal to 50% of the initial concentration over a 30-day period, an experimental study is proceeded in Tier 2. The direct photolysis rate constants for test chemicals in the laboratory is determined using preferably a filtered xenon arc lamp capable of simulating natural sunlight in the 290 to 800 nm, or sunlight irradiation, and extrapolated to natural water. If estimated losses are superior or equal to 20%, the transformation pathway and the identities, concentrations, and rate of formation and decline of major transformation products are identified. An optional task is the additional determination of the quantum yield for various types of water bodies, seasons, and latitudes of interest.
The test chemical should be directly dissolved in the aqueous media saturated in air at a concentration which should not exceed half its solubility. For linear and non-linear regressions on the test chemical data in definitive or upper tier tests, the minimum number of samples collected should be 5 and 7 respectively. The exact number of samples and the timing of their collection is determined by a preliminary range-finding. Replicates (at least 2) of each experimental determination of kinetic parameters are recommended to determine variability and reduce uncertainty in their determination.
This Test Guideline describes how to plan and carry out processing studies, i.e. determine residue levels in primary processed commodities following pesticide application on raw agriculture commodities (RAC) under conditions likely to lead to maximum residues. It provides the distribution of residues (active ingredient, and/or metabolites, degradation products), and preferential accumulation in various processed products resulting from the processing of a commodity.
Used RACs (of plant origin and animal origin) should contain field-treated quantifiable residues, at sufficient levels so that concentration/dilution factors for the various consumed products and non-consumed intermediates can be determined. Pesticides residues to be measured are determined by the residue definition based on studies on the nature of the residue in processing and/or in plant and livestock. For each field test site (at least two independent) the processing factor (Pf) is calculated as the ratio between the residue level in the processed commodity and in the RAC or the commodity to be processed. If a given commodity has two or more significantly different commercial procedures, two trials for each procedure are necessary. Spiked samples should be run concurrently with those from the processing study to ensure the method validity.