This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the necessary controls, including a carrier control if necessary. For the fathead minnow, four replicate test vessels are used for each treatment level and control(s). During the conduct of the assay, the egg production is measured quantitatively daily in each test vessel. At termination of the 21-day exposure period, two biomarker endpoints are measured in males and females separately, as indicators of endocrine activity of the test chemical; these endpoints are vitellogenin and secondary sexual characteristics. Gonads of both sexes are also preserved and histopathology may be evaluated to assess the reproductive fitness of the test animals and to add to the weight of evidence of other endpoints.
This Test Guideline describes the modified MITI test (II). This test permits the measurement of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and the analysis of residual chemicals in order to evaluate the inherent biodegradability of chemical substances which have been found by the Standard MITI Method (I) to be low degradable.
An automated closed-system oxygen consumption measuring apparatus (BOD-meter) is used. Chemicals to be tested are inoculated in the testing vessels (six bottles with different quantities of test chemical) with micro-organisms. In order to check the activity of the inoculum, the use of control substances (aniline, sodium acetate or sodium benzoate) is desirable. During the test period, the BOD is measured continuously. Biodegradability is calculated on the basis of BOD and supplemental chemical analysis, such as measurement of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, concentration of residual chemicals, etc. The BOD curve is obtained continuously and automatically for 14 to 28 days. After the 14 to 28 days of testing, pH, residual chemicals and intermediates in the testing vessels are analysed.
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Governments around the world are working towards an international agreement on actions to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas emissions at the Fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP15) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen at the end of 2009. Considering the costs and risks of inaction, taking action now, even in the midst of a global economic crisis, makes good economic sense. This Policy Brief
This paper compares CO2-related tax rate differentiation in motor vehicle taxes in OECD member countries, drawing on information available in the OECD/EEA database on instruments used for environmental policy.
The present paper compares the use of CO2 or energy efficiency tax rate differentiation in OECD countries at present.
This Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials, is a “living document” and as such, it will be updated and amended in an iterative manner based upon knowledge accumulation as the testing programme and Dossier Development Plans (DDPs) work progresses.
These are the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals: Testing and Assessment Series Monographs.
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OECD Guidance for Country Data Review Reports on Microbial Pest Control Agents (Monograph Guidance for Microbials), Series on Pesticides No 22 - Main document
Development of this siteThis website has been developed by the Issue Team on Sustainable Chemistry which is part of the OECD Environment, Health and Safety Programme. Germany served as a lead country in the development of this website. Purpose of the Sustainable Chemistry PlatformThis site was set up to facilitate information exchange, review of new developments and further elaboration of incentives for Sustainable Chemistry and to
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OECD Guidance for Industry Data Submissions for Microbial Pest Control Products and their Microbial Pest Control Agents (Dossier Guidance for Microbials), Series on Pesticides No. 23 - Main document