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The key objectives of the conference were to exchange experiences on the good practices and trends in environmental compliance assurance in OECD countries and major emerging economies based on the draft project report; and agree on a limited number of emerging compliance assurance issues.
While political will is necessary to tackle climate change, financial measures are needed to keep down the cost of action. According to Angel Gurría, "Ministers of Finance share a common responsibility to help shape cost-effective policies to respond to climate change."
A new OECD book on sustainable development will practice what it preaches by using innovative low-carbon publishing technology for sales in far-flung global markets.
This report presents three case studies to illustrate the relationship between environmental policy and technological innovation.
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This guidance document focuses on microbiological efficacy testing. It covers efficacy testing of articles treated with antimicrobials in the manufacturing process with the intention of the achieving an external effect.
This Forum jointly organised by the OECD/ITF and the Mexican Ministry for Environment considered major transport trends – both in large urban areas and those raised by a globalising economy – with a special focus on developments in Latin America.
This Test Guideline describes a method to estimate the developmental toxicity of a test chemical to the dung dwelling life stages of dung-dependent dipteran species. Two test species can be used. The test chemical is mixed with bovine faeces, to which either 10 eggs of Scathophaga stercoraria or 10 larvae of Musca autumnalis are added. The test will be terminated 5 days after emergence of the last adult in the control (> 18 days for S. stercoraria, >13 days for M. autumnalis). Then the possible impacts of the test chemical on the following measurement endpoints are assessed under controlled conditions: sex and total number of emerged adult flies, retardation of emergence indicated by the developmental rate and morphological change. Depending on the experimental design, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) or the Effect concentration for x percent effect (ECx) can be determined. This Guideline can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but is not applicable to volatile substances. If the toxicity of the chemical is unknown, five nominal test concentrations should be conducted. A positive control should be tested periodically. The test is considered valid if in the controls hatching of larvae is superior or equal to 70% of the number of introduced eggs, emergence of adults is superior or equal to 70% and superior or equal to 50% of the respectively hatched and introduced larvae and if the emergence of adult flies starts after 18 +- 2 days (S. stercoraria) or after 13 +- 2 days(M. autumnalis).
This Test guideline describes studies on phototransformation in water to determine the potential effects of solar irradiation on chemicals in surface water, considering direct photolysis only.
It is designed as a tiered approach. The Tier 1 is based on a theoretical screen. The rate of decline of a test chemical in a direct photolysis study is generally assumed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. If the maximum possible losses is estimated to be superior or equal to 50% of the initial concentration over a 30-day period, an experimental study is proceeded in Tier 2. The direct photolysis rate constants for test chemicals in the laboratory is determined using preferably a filtered xenon arc lamp capable of simulating natural sunlight in the 290 to 800 nm, or sunlight irradiation, and extrapolated to natural water. If estimated losses are superior or equal to 20%, the transformation pathway and the identities, concentrations, and rate of formation and decline of major transformation products are identified. An optional task is the additional determination of the quantum yield for various types of water bodies, seasons, and latitudes of interest.
The test chemical should be directly dissolved in the aqueous media saturated in air at a concentration which should not exceed half its solubility. For linear and non-linear regressions on the test chemical data in definitive or upper tier tests, the minimum number of samples collected should be 5 and 7 respectively. The exact number of samples and the timing of their collection is determined by a preliminary range-finding. Replicates (at least 2) of each experimental determination of kinetic parameters are recommended to determine variability and reduce uncertainty in their determination.
This Test Guideline describes how to plan and carry out processing studies, i.e. determine residue levels in primary processed commodities following pesticide application on raw agriculture commodities (RAC) under conditions likely to lead to maximum residues. It provides the distribution of residues (active ingredient, and/or metabolites, degradation products), and preferential accumulation in various processed products resulting from the processing of a commodity.
Used RACs (of plant origin and animal origin) should contain field-treated quantifiable residues, at sufficient levels so that concentration/dilution factors for the various consumed products and non-consumed intermediates can be determined. Pesticides residues to be measured are determined by the residue definition based on studies on the nature of the residue in processing and/or in plant and livestock. For each field test site (at least two independent) the processing factor (Pf) is calculated as the ratio between the residue level in the processed commodity and in the RAC or the commodity to be processed. If a given commodity has two or more significantly different commercial procedures, two trials for each procedure are necessary. Spiked samples should be run concurrently with those from the processing study to ensure the method validity.
This Test Guideline describes a method to assess bioaccumulation of sediment-associated chemicals in endobenthic oligochaetes worms. It applies to stable, neutral organic chemicals having log Kow values between 3.0 and 6.0, superlipophilic substances that show a log Kow of more than 6.0, or stable metallo-organic compounds which tend to associate with sediments.
The test consists of two phases. During the uptake phase, worms are exposed to sediment spiked with the test substance, topped with reconstituted water and equilibrated as appropriate. Groups of control worms are held under identical conditions. The duration of the uptake phase is by default 28 days, unless a steady-state has been reached before. For the elimination phase, the worms are transferred to a sediment-water-system free of test substance. This second phase is terminated when either the 10% level of steady state concentration, or of the concentration measured in the worms on day 28 of the uptake phase, is reached, or after a maximum of 10 days. Change of the concentration of the test substance in/on the worms is monitored throughout both phases of the test. The uptake rate constant (ks), the elimination rate constant (ke) and the kinetic bioaccumulation factor (BAFK = ks/ ke) are calculated. Radiolabelled test substances may be used to determine whether metabolites identification and quantification should be made. The minimum number of treated replicates for kinetic measurements should be three per sampling point throughout uptake and elimination phase. To ensure the test validity (cumulative mortality of the worms < 20% of the initial number), toxicity tests should also be conducted at regular intervals. Besides, the worm lipid content, the sediment total organic carbon content and the residue level in worms at the end of the elimination phase are useful for the interpretation of the results.