Latest Documents


  • 18-September-2009

    English

    OECD Conference on the Economics of Climate Change (18 September 2009)

    The Conference was an opportunity for high level experts, decision-makers and representatives from civil society to get together and discuss ways to address global climate change mitigation and adaptation issues in a consensual and econo

  • 18-September-2009

    English

    The economics of climate change mitigation

    Climate change is the greatest collective challenge that we have ever faced and the world needs a significant reduction in global emissions from current levels. Many developed countries have already committed to reduce GHG emissions in the near-term, but the targets must be more ambitious. At the COP15 Conference in Copenhagen, we have a unique opportunity to address this threat but many questions still remain without answers,

  • 17-September-2009

    English

    Survey of firms' responses to public incentives for energy innovation, including the UK Climate Change Levy and Climate Change Agreements

    This paper contributes to the project on "Taxation, Innovation and the Environment". It presents a survey of firms’ responses to public incentives for energy innovation.

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  • 15-September-2009

    English

    The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action Beyond 2012

    Against the background of a projected doubling of world greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century, this book explores feasible ways to abate them at least cost.

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  • 11-September-2009

    English

    Ten new Test Guidelines and six updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 7 September 2009

    Ten new Test Guidelines and six updated Test Guidelines have been adopted by Council on 7 September 2009

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  • 10-September-2009

    English

    OECD Conference on the Economics of Climate Change - Friday 18 Sept 2009

    As world leaders head into serious discussions in the coming weeks about how to address climate change, new OECD work will inform some of the most contentious isssues of the debate – those related to the costs involved. .

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  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study

    This revised Test Guideline has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity by the inhalation route for a subchronic duration (90 days), and to provide robust data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day during a 90 day (13 week) period to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b) filtered air (negative control), and/or c) the vehicle (vehicle control). Animals are generally exposed 5 days per week but exposure for 7 days per week is also allowed. Males and females are always tested, but they may be exposed at different concentration levels if it is known that one sex is more susceptible to a given test article. The results of the study include measurement and daily and detailed observations (haematology and clinical chemistry), as well as ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology. This Test Guideline allows the flexibility to include satellite (reversibility) groups, interim sacrifices, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), neurologic tests, and additional clinical pathology and histopathological evaluations in order to better characterize the toxicity of a test article.

  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 436: Acute Inhalation Toxicity – Acute Toxic Class Method

    The method described by this Test Guideline provides information that allows hazard assessment for short-term exposure to a test article by inhalation, and allows the substance to be classified according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The test method is based on a stepwise procedure, each step using 3 animals of each sex (the preferred species is rat). Animals are exposed in  inhalation chambers to a pre-defined concentration for 4 hours. Absence or presence of compound-related mortality of the animals at one step will determine the next step. Animals in severe pain or distress should be humanely killed. The starting concentration is selected from one of four fixed levels corresponding to GHS categories 1-4 for gases, vapours or aerosols. Animals are observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity for a total of at least 14 days. Animals' body weights should be determined at least weekly. All the animals should be subjected to gross necropsy.

  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 452: Chronic Toxicity Studies

    The objective of these chronic toxicity studies is to characterize the profile of a substance in a mammalian species (primarily rodents) following prolonged and repeated exposure.
    The Test Guideline focuses on rodents and oral administration. Both sexes should be used. For rodents, at least 20 animals per sex per group should normally be used at each dose level, while for non-rodents a minimum of 4 per sex per group is recommended. At least three dose levels should be used in addition to the concurrent control group. Frequency of exposure normally is daily, but may vary according to the route chosen (oral, dermal or inhalation) and should be adjusted according to the toxicokinetic profile of the test substance. The duration of the exposure period should be 12 months. The study report should include: measurements (weighing) and regular detailed observations (haematological examination, urinalysis, clinical chemistry), as well as necropsy procedures and histopathology.

  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 437: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

    The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test method (BCOP) is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as 'ocular corrosives and severe irritants'. The BCOP uses isolated corneas from the eyes of cattle slaughtered for commercial purposes, thus avoiding the use of laboratory animals. Each treatment group (test substance, negative/positive controls) consists of a minimum of three eyes where the cornea has been excised and mounted to a holder. Depending on the physical nature and chemical characteristics of the test substance, different methods can be used for its application since the critical factor is ensuring that the test substance adequately covers the epithelial surface. Toxic effects to the cornea are measured as opacity and permeability, which when combined gives an In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS) for each treatment group. A substance that induces an IVIS superior or equal to 55.1 is defined as a corrosive or severe irritant.

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