By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? Does the design of the tax play a critical role? What is the effect of this innovation? In analysing these questions, the report draws on case studies that cover Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Israel and others. It also covers a wide set of environmental issues and technologies, as well as the economic and policy contexts.
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In addition to the work on Globalisation, Transport and the Environment (see www.oecd.org/env/transport/globalisation), OECD has in recent years issued a number of other documents on transport and environment.
Biodiversity and ecosystem services provide tangible benefits for society, such as food provisioning, water purification, genetic resources or climate regulation. These services provide critical life support functions and contribute to human health, well being and economic growth. Yet biodiversity is declining worldwide and, in some areas, this loss is accelerating. The need for policies that promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services is more important than ever.
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a direct and flexible incentive-based mechanism under which the user or beneficiary of an ecosystem service makes a direct payment to an individual or community whose land use decisions have an impact on the ecosystem service provision. Interest in PES has been increasing rapidly over the past decade: PES are proliferating worldwide and there are already more than 300 programmes in place today at national, regional and local levels.
Drawing on the literature concerning effective PES and on more than 30 case studies from both developed and developing countries, this book aims to identify good practice in the design and implementation of PES programmes so as to enhance their environmental and cost effectiveness. It addresses the following questions: Why are PES useful and how do they work? How can they be made most effective environmentally and how can their cost-effectiveness be maximised? What are the different potential sources of finance for PES programmes, and how can they be secured? and What are the lessons learned from existing PES programmes and insights for future programmes, including international PES?
Biodiversity provides critical ecosystem services for our economy, society and human wellbeing – bees to fertilize crops, plants that provide medicines, and forests that clean air and regulate our climate...
On 11-12 October, the OECD Environment Directorate hosted a meeting of the governing body of the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE).
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This brochure describes the OECD Database on Research into the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials and how users can access, search and contribute to it.
As part of the project “Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: the role of ports”, this case study focuses on the way the port of metro Vancouver and the Canadian authorities address the environmental impacts of the port and its interactions with the hinterlands.
As part of the project “Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: the role of ports”, this case study focuses on the way the port of Busan and the Korean authorities address the environmental impacts of the port and its interactions with the hinterlands.
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The purpose of this Emission Scenario Docuemtn (ESD) is to provide realistic worst-case emission estimates for fragrance oils blended into commercial and consumer products.
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The purpose of this Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is to provide realistic worst-case emission estimates for chemicals used in the electronics industry.