Testing of chemicals

Adopted OECD test guidelines on short, and long-term toxicity testing, with 3R relevance

 

The OECD is committed to the implementation of the 3R-principles, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, as first laid down by Russel & Burch in 1959, in their “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. Since the adoption in 1981 of the first set of Test Guidelines, many of the short-, and long-term toxicity tests  have been developed or revised to introduce aspects of the 3R-principles.
 
 
 
 
 TG Title     Original adoption 3R relevance and most recent update 
 401  Acute Oral Toxicity (deleted)  12 May 1981 Date of Deletion: 20 December 2002 (Replaced by TGs 420, 423 and 425, introducing refinement and reduction).
 402  Acute Dermal Toxicity  12 May 1981 24 February 1987: Animal test introducing reduction compared to the original TG (lowering of the dose level).
 403  Acute Inhalation Toxicity Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test introducing potential reduction in animal usage compared to original 403, if one sex is more susceptible. Refinement by applying humane endpoints.

404 Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion 12 May 1981 24 April 2002: Animal test with a sequential testing strategy for acute dermal irritation and corrosion that introduces refinement  and  reduction,  including  in vitro screens.
405 Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion 12 May 1981 24 April 2002: Animal test with a sequential testing strategy for acute eye irritation and corrosion that introduces refinement  and  reduction,  including  in vitro screens.
406 Skin Sensitisation 12 May 1981 17 July 1992: Animal test introducing reduction by 50% compared to original OECD TG.
407 Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents 12 May 1981 27 July 1995: Animal test introducing refinement compared to original OECD TG (more information on best dosing practice, more information from the same animal).
408 Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents 12 May 1981 21 September 1998: Animal test (more information from the same animal than in the original test).
409 Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Non-Rodents 12 May 1981 21 September 1998: Animal test (more information from the same animal than in the original test).
412 Repeated Dose Inhalation Toxicity: 28/14-Day Study Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test  providing  more  information  from  the same animal than in the original test method.
413 Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test  providing  more  information  from  the same animal than in the original test method.
414 Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study 12 May 1981 22 January 2001: Animal test (introduces reduction compared to the original OECD TG, requiring 20% fewer animals, more information from the same animals).
420 Acute Oral toxicity – Fixed Dose Procedure (FDP) 17 July 1992 17 December 2001: Animal test (reduction/ and refinement method in comparison with the conventional TG 401), less suffering, smaller number of animals.
421 Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test 27 July 1995 Animal test (reduction method compared to original TGs), new screening test provides essential information with a minimum number of animals.
422 Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test 22 March 1996 Animal test (reduction method compared to the individual TGs), combines the new screening test on reproduction  toxicity  with  TG  407,  and  further reduces the number of animals to an absolute minimum for these combined endpoints.
423 Acute Toxic Class Method (ATC) 22 March 1996 17 December 2001 Animal test (reduction method compared to the conventional TG 401), much smaller number of animals (10% of that required for TG 401).
425 Acute Oral Toxicity –     Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and- Down Procedure 21 September 1998 17 December 2001: Animal test (reduction method compared to the conventional TG 401), smaller number of animals, provides a closer estimate of the LD50 than TGs 420 and 423.
428 Skin absorption: In vitro method 13 April 2004 Alternative to the in vivo method (TG 427).
429 Skin Sensitisation: Local Lymph Node Assay 24 April 2002 Animal test (reduction and refinement method compared to TG 406), provides more information and causes less suffering.
430 In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance Test (TER) 13 April 2004 In vitro test method (ex vivo test) for the corrosion part of TG 404.
431 In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Human Skin Model Test 13 April 2004 In vitro test method for the corrosion part of TG 404.
432 In Vitro 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test 13 April 2004 In vitro test method (no OECD TG existed for an animal test).
435 In Vitro Skin Corrosivity 19 July 2006 In vitro test method for the corrosion part of TG 404 (for specific applications, only applicable to acids and bases).
436 Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Acute Toxic Class (ATC) Method 7 September 2009 Animal test introducing reduction in animal usage compared to TG 403, and refinement by applying humane endpoints.
437 Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) Test Method: an In Vitro Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and severe Irritants 7 September 2009 An in vitro screening test for identifying potential ocular corrosives and severe irritants in a tiered- testing strategy, as part of a weight-of-evidence approach.
438 Isolated   Chicken   Eye   (ICE) Test  Method:  an  in  vitro Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants 7 September 2009 An in vitro screening test for identifying potential ocular corrosives and severe irritants in a tiered- testing strategy, as part of a weight-of-evidence approach.
451 Carcinogenicity Studies Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test. A Guidance Document is under development addressing issues on reduction and refinement.
452 Chronic Toxicity Studies Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test. A Guidance Document is under development addressing issues on reduction and refinement.
453 Combined Chronic toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies Draft updated Test Guideline (Original adoption: 12 May
1981)
Animal test. A Guidance Document is under development addressing issues on reduction and refinement.

455 TG for a Stably Transfected Human Estrogen Receptor-α Transcriptional Activation Assay (STTA) for Detection of Estrogenic Agonist-Activity of Chemicals 7 September 2009 In vitro test (could possibly introduce reduction if used in a testing strategy for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals).
 
 

 

 

 

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