Testing of chemicals

Adopted OECD test guidelines on genetic toxicity testing with 3R relevance


The OECD is committed to the implementation of the 3R-principles, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, as first laid down by Russel & Burch in 1959, in their “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. Since the adoption in 1981 of the first set of Test Guidelines, many of the genetic toxicity tests  have been developed or revised to introduce aspects of the 3R-principles.


  TG                                  Title Original adoption 3R relevance and most recent update
 471  Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test  26 May 1983 21 July 1997: In vitro test for point mutation*
 472 Genetic Toxicology: Escherichia coli, Reverse Assay  26 May 1983 Date of deletion: 21 July 1997 (Method merged with TG 471)
 473 In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test  26 May 1983 21 July 1997: In vitro test method*
474 Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test 26 May 1983 21 July 1997: Animal test (reduction method compared to 1983 version, uses a smaller number of animals)
476 In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test 4 April 1984 21 July 1997: In vitro test for gene mutations (genetic toxicity)*
477 Genetic Toxicology: Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Test in Drosophilia melanogaster 4 April 1984 Test method on invertebrates
479 Genetic Toxicology: In vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange assay in Mammalian Cells 23 October 1986 In vitro test for DNA exchanges between sister chromatids (genetic toxicity)*
480 Genetic Toxicology: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gene Mutation Assay 23 October 1986 In vitro test for gene mutations in Saccharomyces (genetic toxicity)*
481 Genetic Toxicology: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mitotic Recombination Assay 23 October 1986 In vitro test for mitotic recombination in saccharomyces (genetic toxicity)*
482 Genetic Toxicology: DNA Damage and Repair, Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells in vitro 23 October 1986 In vitro test method*


* All the in vitro tests on Genetic Toxicology Testing are part of a testing strategy which progresses to animal testing only if necessary (in the case of equivocal results).