Over the last few years, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of new and innovative approaches for managing risks posed by chemicals. OECD countries have found that traditional "command and control" techniques are not always the most effective or efficient ways to control risk. One approach that has been of particular interest is the use of "non-regulatory initiatives". In order to increase awareness of the range of approaches that can be used and identify factors that can contribute to or inhibit the success of these approaches, the United States hosted an OECD workshop from 10-12 September 1996 on these techniques [ OCDE/GD(97)97]. The workshop concluded that non-regulatory approaches offer valuable opportunities for managing risks and should be pursued by OECD Member countries and within OECD.