Latest Documents


  • 20-September-2016

    English

    OECD publishes new and updated Test Guidelines for effects on human health and on environmental species

    The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterise potential hazards of chemicals. Every year new and updated Test Guidelines are adopted to meet the regulatory needs in OECD member countries. The most recent Test Guidelines were adopted in July 2016.

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  • 15-September-2016

    English

    Introduction to Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs)

    A Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) is a publicly accessible database or inventory of chemicals or pollutants released to air, water and soil and transferred off-site for treatment. Find out more: What hazardous chemical substances and pollutants are being released to the environment or transferred off-site? How much is being released or transferred off-site over time? Where the releases occur? and by whom?

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  • 25-August-2016

    English

    Climate Impacts in the Sahel and West Africa: Role of Climate Science in Policy Making - West African Papers

    This paper reviews the latest climate projections for West Africa and considers alternative ways in which the knowledge generated from climate science can be understood in the context of preparing for an uncertain future that provides practical help for decision makers.

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  • 5-August-2016

    English

    IOMC Toolbox for Chemical Accidents

    The IOMC Toolbox is a tool enabling countries to identify the most appropriate and efficient actions to solve specific national problems related to chemicals management.

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  • 5-August-2016

    English

    Environment, health and safety briefs

    These four current EHS briefs show the objectives, outcomes and benefits of the Pesticides, (Q)SARs, MAD and PFCs programmes.

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  • 3-August-2016

    English

    Revised Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and other constituents

    The document addresses compositional considerations for new varieties of rice by identifying the key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients, and other constituents. A general description of these components is provided including background material on the cultivated rice species, production, consumption, processing and uses of rice, and considerations to be taken into account when assessing new varieties of this crop.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 478: Rodent Dominant Lethal Test

    The purpose of the Dominant lethal (DL) test is to investigate whether chemical agents produce mutations resulting from chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. In addition, the dominant lethal test is relevant to assessing genotoxicity because, although they may vary among species, factors of in vivo metabolism, pharmacokinetics and DNA-repair processes are active and contribute to the response. Induction of a DL mutation after exposure to a test chemical indicates that the chemical has affected germinal tissue of the test animal.

    This modified version of the Test Guideline reflects more than thirty years of experience with this test and the potential for integrating or combining this test with other toxicity tests such as developmental, reproductive toxicity, or genotoxicity studies; however due to its limitations and the use of a large number of animals this assay is not intended for use as a primary method, but rather as a supplemental test method which can only be used when there is no alternative for regulatory requirements.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 458: Stably Transfected Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Androgenic Agonist and Antagonist Activity of Chemicals

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay providing the methodology of Stably Transfected Transactivation to detect Androgen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists (AR STTA assays). The TA assay using a reporter gene technique is an in vitro tool that provides mechanistic data. The assay is used to establish signal activation or blocking of the androgen receptor caused by a ligand. Some chemicals may, in a cell type-dependent manner, display both agonist and antagonist activity and are known as selective androgen receptor modulators. Following the ligand binding, the receptor-ligand complex translocates to the nucleus where it binds specific DNA response elements and transactivates a firefly luciferase reporter gene, resulting in an increased cellular expression of the luciferase enzyme. Luciferin is a substrate that is transformed by the luciferase enzyme to a bioluminescence product that can be quantitatively measured with a luminometer. Luciferase activity can be evaluated quickly and inexpensively with a number of commercially available test kits. The test system provided in this Test Guideline utilises the AR-EcoScreenTM cell line.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals, usually rodents (rats, mice and Chinese hamsters). Structural chromosome aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a stomach tube or a suitable intubation cannula, or by intraperitoneal injection) and are sacrificed at appropriate times after treatment. Prior to sacrifice, animals are treated with a metaphase-arresting agent. Chromosome preparations are then made from the bone marrow cells and stained, and metaphase cells are analysed for chromosome aberrations. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analysable animals per sex. The limit dose is 2000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment up to 14 days, and 1000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment longer than 14 days.

  • 29-July-2016

    English

    Test No. 490: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests Using the Thymidine Kinase Gene

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. This TG includes two distinct in vitro mammalian gene mutation assays requiring two specific tk heterozygous cells lines: L5178Y tk+/-3.7.2C cells for the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and TK6 tk+/- cells for the TK6 assay. Genetic events detected using the tk locus include both gene mutations and chromosomal events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

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