Latest Documents


  • 7-August-2015

    English

    Agricultural Pesticides

    The Pesticide Programme of the OECD looks to help governments co-operate in assessing and reducing the risks of agricultural pesticides. The OECD encourages governments to share the work of pesticide registration and develops tools to monitor and minimise pesticide risk to health and the environment.

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  • 7-August-2015

    English

    Introduction to Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs)

    An introduction to Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) including an explanation of what they are as well as the role of stakeholders, including industry, the public, NGOs and the scientific and economic communities, as well as government.

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  • 7-August-2015

    English

    The chemical accidents programme

    The OECD Programme on Chemical Accidents addresses a subject that concerns everyone who uses or handles hazardous chemicals, works in a chemical plant, or lives near one. This programme helps public authorities, industry, labour and other interested parties prevent chemical accidents and respond appropriately if one occurs.

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  • 31-July-2015

    English

    OECD biotechnology newsletter updates

    OECD major events and activities relating to biotechnologies: latest developments are updated biannually in this Newsletter.

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  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Newly published set of Test Guidelines

    A set of new and updated OECD Test Guidelines was published at the end of July 2015 to test chemicals and identify hazards such as endocrine disruption, serious eye damage, genotoxicity, skin irritation or corrosion.

  • 28-July-2015

    English, PDF, 771kb

    Draft Updated Test Guideline 223: Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test

    This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to estimate the acute oral toxicity of substances to birds, and it provides three testing options: (1) limit dose test, (2) LD50-slope test, and (3) LD50-only test.

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  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 421: Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test

    This screening Test Guideline describes the effects of a test chemical on male and female reproductive performance. It has been updated with endocrine disruptor endpoints, in particular measure of anogenital distance and male nipple retention in pups and thyroid examination.

    The test substance is administered in graduated doses to several groups of males and females. Males should be dosed for a minimum of four weeks. Females should be dosed throughout the study, so approximately 63 days. Matings "one male to one female" should normally be used in this study. This Test Guideline is designed for use with the rat. It is recommended that each group be started with at least 10 animals of each sex. Generally, at least three test groups and a control group should be used. Dose levels may be based on information from acute toxicity tests or on results from repeated dose studies. The test substance is administered orally and daily. The results of this study include clinical observations, body weight and food/water consumption, oestrous cycle monitoring, offspring parameters observation/measurement, thyroid hormone measurement, as well as gross necropsy and histopathology. The findings of this toxicity study should be evaluated in terms of the observed effects, necropsy and microscopic findings. Because of the short period of treatment of the male, the histopathology of the testis and epididymus should be considered along with the fertility data, when assessing male reproductive effects.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 493: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (hrER) In Vitro Assays to Detect Chemicals with ER Binding Affinity

    This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provide the methodology for human recombinant in vitro assays to detect substances with estrogen receptor binding affinity (hrER binding assays). It comprises two mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor (i.e. ERα) binders and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the basis for this PBTG are: the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) In Vitro Estrogen Receptor (ER) Binding Assay Using a Full Length Human Recombinant ERα, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Binding Assay Using a Human Recombinant Ligand Binding Domain Protein. This assay measures the ability of a radiolabeled ligand ([3H]17β-estradiol) to bind with the ER in the presence of increasing concentrations of a test chemical (i.e. competitor).  Test chemicals that possess a high affinity for the ER compete with the radiolabeled ligand at a lower concentration as compared with those chemicals with lower affinity for the receptor. This assay consists of two major components: a saturation binding experiment to characterise receptor-ligand interaction parameters and document ER specificity, followed by a competitive binding experiment that characterises the competition between a test chemical and a radiolabeled ligand for binding to the ER. These test methods are being proposed for screening and prioritisation purposes, but also provide mechanistic information that can be used in a weight of evidence approach.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 476: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests using the Hprt and xprt genes

    The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. In this test, the used genetic endpoints measure mutation at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and at a transgene of xanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT). The HPRT and XPRT mutation tests detect different spectra of genetic events.

    Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

  • 28-July-2015

    English

    Test No. 478: Rodent Dominant Lethal Test

    The purpose of the Dominant lethal (DL) test is to investigate whether chemical agents produce mutations resulting from chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. In addition, the dominant lethal test is relevant to assessing genotoxicity because, although they may vary among species, factors of in vivo metabolism, pharmacokinetics and DNA-repair processes are active and contribute to the response. Induction of a DL mutation after exposure to a test chemical indicates that the chemical has affected germinal tissue of the test animal.

    This modified version of the Test Guideline reflects more than thirty years of experience with this test and the potential for integrating or combining this test with other toxicity tests such as developmental, reproductive toxicity, or genotoxicity studies; however due to its limitations and the use of a large number of animals this assay is not intended for use as a primary method, but rather as a supplemental test method which can only be used when there is no alternative for regulatory requirements.

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