Micro-organisms play a fundamental role in the environment. Yet their role is the result of complex biogeochemical processes by consortia of micro-organisms and the function of individual species is not clear in many cases.
This publication provides an overview of the current situation and relevant developments in environmental microbiology, as well as its potential application, which covers: use of micro-organisms for agriculture, production purposes, bioremediation, and cleaning purpose; environmental applications of microbial symbionts of insects; and environmental risk/safety assessment of the deliberate release of engineered micro-organisms.
An addendum to the OECD Guiding Principles on Chemical Accident Prevention, Preparedness and Response to address Natural Hazards Triggering Technological Accidents (Natech) Risk Management has just been published. The addendum consists of a number of amendments to the Guiding Principles and the addition of a new Chapter to provide more detailed guidance on Natech prevention, preparedness and response.
This page explains the background to the OECD Test Guidelines, the reason for their development, their applicability and how they can be accessed.
The objective of these Guiding Principles is to set out general guidance for the safe planning, construction, management, operation and review of safety performance of hazardous installation in order to prevent accidents involving hazardous substances and, recognising that such accidents may nonetheless occur, to mitigate adverse effects through effective land-use planning and emergency preparedness and response.
This guidance is intended to harmonise the way non-guideline in vitro test methods are described. This should in future facilitate an assessment of the relevance of test methods for biological activities and responses of interest, of the quality of data produced, irrespective of whether these tests are based on manual protocols or assay protocols adapted for use on automated platforms or high-throughput screening systems (HTS).
Children can be more vulnerable than adults to chemicals. Considering global concern for children’s health, the OECD has been working to bring together knowledge and experiences to reduce risks to children’s health from chemicals.
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This report includes the conclusions and recommendations of an expert workshop on the genotoxicity of nanomaterials, which was organized by OECD’s Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. The main topic was the applicability of existing OECD Test Guidelines (TG) for chemical safety to nanomaterials.
OECD countries have developed PRTR system to track releases and transfers of potentially harmful chemicals. To improve PRTR system, OECD have analysed common elements (pollutants, sectors) in different PRTR systems, mainly focus on institutional arrangement. This serves as a common framework for different PRTR system, and supporting materials for a country that intends to develop or update its PRTR.
PRTR have been established throughout the world to track releases and transfers of potentially harmful chemicals. But most of the PRTR systems were designed without considering comparability, each PRTR has its own requirement of reporting chemicals and sectors. To harmonise globally, OECD reviewed the reporting chemicals and sectors across PRTR systems and produced proposal for harmonised lists of reporting pollutants.