OECD has carried out the first Environmental Performance Review of China in 2006/2007. It builds on over a decade of environmental co-operation between OECD and China. As a result, China has embodied OECD approaches such as “Polluter Pays” and “User Pays” Principles in its environmental legal acts, for instance through environmental charges or water pricing.
Through this partnership, OECD countries have gained insights into the major environmental challenges facing China, and the measures being taken to address them. The Environmental Performance Review of China confirmed that rapid economic development, industrialisation and urbanisation have generated growing pressures on the environment, resulting in significant damage to human health and depletion of natural resources. The review also highlighted efforts by the Chinese authorities to encourage more balanced patterns of development, by promoting concepts such as “harmonious society” and “scientific development”.
The Review offers some 51 recommendations. It urges Chinese authorities to strengthen effectiveness in implementing environmental laws (in particular at the sub-national level) and to mobilise financing for environmental infrastructure. It insists on reorienting economic growth by both institutional and market-based integration of environmental concerns in energy, agriculture, transport, urban policies and sectors as well as in financing and planning. It also highlights that China has a shared interest with OECD and other countries to address international environmental challenges, and has significantly enhanced its engagement in international environmental co-operation in recent years.
Chapter 1. Conclusions and Recommendations (also available in Chinese)
Part I - Environmental Management
Chapter 2. The Context
Chapter 3. Air Management
Chapter 4. Water Mangement
Chapter 5. Waste Management
Chapter 6. Nature and Biodiversity
Part II - Sustainable Development
Chapter 7. Environmental-Economic Integration
Chapter 8. Environmental-Social Interface
Part III - International Co-operation
Chapter 9. International Co-operation