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Environmental country reviews

Climate change: lessons from Environmental Performance Reviews

 

The OECD's Environmental Performance Reviews (EPRs) provide evidence-based analyses and assessments of countries' progress towards their environmental policy objectives.

Since 2010, ten EPRs (Austria, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden) focused on climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, sometimes associated to related subjects such as energy or air pollution. 

 

sweden 2014 

Sweden has shown a longstanding commitment to mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) both domestically and internationally. This chapter assesses the country’s performance in reaching its ambitious domestic emissions reduction targets. It describes Sweden’s institutional arrangements for climate change policy making and the policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions. In particular, this chapter reviews carbon pricing, in the form of carbon and energy taxes and emission trading. It discusses policies to curb GHG emissions in the transport and energy sectors, including measures to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewables.

Sweden 2014: Climate change

 

austria 2013

Climate change adaptation and climate-related natural hazards

Austria has a long-established system for managing climate-related natural hazards. Climate change adaptation is a newly emerging policy area that has recently moved into the implementation phase. This chapter outlines the challenges posed to Austria by current and future climatic conditions. It assesses the policy and institutional framework, along with the process and tools used to identify priorities for climate change adaptation policies. The main challenges to implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy are identified, including securing finance and effectively mainstreaming adaptation into sectoral policies. The Austrian contribution to supporting adaptation activities in other countries is also discussed.

Austria 2013: Climate change adaptation and climate-related natural hazards  

 

italy 2013

Climate change

This chapter reviews policy initiatives implemented over the last decade in Italy to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It examines the strategic and institutional frameworks and the mechanisms in place to manage interactions between different policy instruments and monitor their implementation. It assesses progress in using market-based instruments such as emission trading and energy taxes. The chapter analyses the effectiveness of measures implemented in the energy sector, including those to promote renewables and energy efficiency. This chapter also examines measures to reduce transport-related GHG emissions, including improving the emission performance of vehicles and developing effective and efficient urban transport systems. Finally, the chapter analyses steps taken to integrate adaptation to climate change into sectoral policies as well as regional and local activities.

Italy 2013: Climate change

 

Mexico 2013

Climate change

Mexico has assigned a high political priority to tackling climate change. It has shown great leadership in, and a strong commitment to, supporting international efforts to address climate change. This chapter reviews its progress in strengthening its institutional, strategic and legal frameworks on climate change. It analyses the opportunities to improve the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of measures implemented in the energy and transport sectors, including those to promote renewables and energy efficiency. The potential to reduce non-energy-related emissions, including from deforestation and forest degradation, is also addressed.

Mexico 2013: Climate change 

 

slovenia 2012

Climate Change and Air Pollution

Slovenia has reduced its emissions of virtually all traditional air pollutants, including SOx, NOx, NMVOCs, CO and NH3, as well as those of particulate matter and heavy metals. While significant structural changes to Slovenia’s economy led to a notable drop in GHG emissions in the 1990s, performance in this area since 2000 has been uneven. Emissions from the manufacturing, commercial and residential sectors have decreased, but not enough to offset an increase from the transport sector. This chapter reviews policy initiatives implemented during the review period to reduce local and transboundary air pollution, institutional and strategic frameworks, and mechanisms in place to monitor implementation. It assesses progress in using market-based instruments (e.g. energy and vehicle taxes) and analyses the effectiveness of measures implemented in the energy and transport sectors, including those promoting renewable and energy efficiency. Interactions between different policy instruments are also considered.

Slovenia 2012: Climate change and air pollution

 

germany 2012

Climate change

Germany is a front-runner in developing solutions to address the challenge of climate change. It managed to considerably reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions over the 2000s and will meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol exclusively through domestic measures. This chapter reviews the policy initiatives implemented over the decade to achieve these results, the institutional and strategic frameworks and the mechanisms in place to monitor implementation. It assesses progress in using market-based instruments such as energy taxes and emission trading; it analyses the effectiveness of measures implemented in the energy and transport sectors, including those to promote renewables, energy efficiency and improved vehicle technologies. The interactions between different policy instruments are also considered. Finally, Germany’s ambitious emission reduction targets to 2020 and beyond are discussed.

Germany 2012: Climate change 

 

slovak republic 2011

Climate change and energy

This chapter examines Slovakia's progress in meeting the Kyoto Protocol target, reducing the energy intensity of its economy, and increasing the use of renewable.energy sources. It assesses the factors underlying this progress, and the challenges facing Slovakia to meet its 2020 targets. The chapter reviews the institutional and policy framework for climate change mitigation and the main policy measures put in place to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in particular from electricity and heat generation, energy use and transport. The extent to which market mechanisms (such as emissions trading, energy prices and taxes, and road charges) are used to provide incentives to reduce emissions is also discussed. 

Slovak Republic 2011: Climate change and energy 

 

Norway 2011

Climate Change 

As one of the first countries to adopt a carbon tax, Norway uses this, along with its membership in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in a determined attempt to reduce emissions. Norway experienced a rise in emissions over the past 20 years, meaning its ambitious reduction target by 2020 will need support through the establishment of a more consistent price for carbon across the economy, the development of an economy-wide energy efficiency strategy, and a review of transport taxes and exemptions. If it can successfully manage these elements, Norway could act as a positive example for other countries in the move to a low-carbon economy.

Norway 2011: Climate change

 

Israel 2011

Climate change and air quality

Rapid demographic and economic growth, and the resulting increase in energy and transport demands, are the main factors underlying an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While emissions of air pollutants have declined, air pollution hotspots remain at industrial sites and in major urban areas. The adoption of the Clean Air Law and of a national plan for reducing GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 represent major steps towards addressing these challenges. This chapter reviews these policy initiatives, the institutional framework and the mechanisms in place to monitor implementation. The energy and transport sectors are the major sources of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. The chapter assesses the policy measures implemented in these sectors, including those to promote renewables, energy efficiency and transport modes other than road transport. The opportunity of introducing economy-wide policy instruments such as a carbon tax is also discussed.

Israel 2011: Climate change and air quality

 

japan 2010

Climate Change

The current trends in greenhouse gas emissions represent a major challenge for Japan. A wide range of voluntary, regulatory and economic measures has been put in place to reduce these emissions. Technological progress and negotiated agreements are distinctive features of this policy mix. Local authorities and the private sector play an important, often innovative, role in designing and implementing climate policy. Energy, transport and climate policies are generally mutually supportive, with a focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, infrastructure development and R&D. Japan is a world leader in climate-related R&D. Co-operation with developing countries and adaptation to climate change are receiving growing attention.

Japan 2010: Climate change

 

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