The perceived potential of clean energy to support employment in the post-crisis recovery context has led several OECD and emerging economies to design green industrial policies aimed at protecting domestic manufacturers, notably through local-content requirements (LCRs). These typically require solar or wind developers to source a specific share of jobs, components or costs locally. Such requirements have been designed or implemented in the solar- and wind-energy sectors in at least 21 countries, including 16 OECD countries and emerging economies, mostly since 2009.
Empirical evidence gathered in this report shows however that LCRs have actually hindered international investment across the solar PV and wind-energy value chains, by increasing the cost of inputs for downstream activities. This report also takes stock of other measures that can restrict international investment in solar PV and wind energy, such as trade remedies and technical barriers. This report provides policy makers with evidence-based analysis to guide their decisions in designing clean-energy support policies.
OECD can work its hardest to raise awareness on the truths of climate change, but the world won’t see developments in green technology and infrastructure unless we have eager investors backing up investment and research and development in low-carbon technologies.
The OECD hosted a workshop on green investment banks on 20 May 2015. It built upon discussions of green banks at the OECD Green Investment Financing Fora (May 2015 and June 2014) and continued international dialogue on the experiences of green banks. The workshop welcomed 9 different green banks, public financial institutions, NGOs, the private sector and over 20 countries interested in the green bank model.
2015 is a critical year for humanity. Our civilisation has never faced such existential risks as those associated with global warming, biodiversity erosion and resource depletion. Our societies have never had such an opportunity to advance prosperity and eradicate poverty. We have the choice to either finally embark on the journey towards sustainability or to stick to our current destructive “business-as-usual” pathway.
Developing countries are increasingly moving towards more strategic national policies and plans, the effectiveness of which will depend upon proper assessment of a given country’s vulnerability to climate change. This report draws upon emerging monitoring and evaluation practices across developed and developing countries to identify four tools that countries can draw upon in their own assessment frameworks: 1) climate change risk and vulnerability assessments, 2) indicators to monitor progress on adaptation priorities, 3) project and programme evaluations to identify effective adaptation approaches, and 4) national audits and climate expenditure reviews.
The appropriate mix of tools to monitor and evaluate national climate-change adaptation will to a large extent be determined by data availability, monitoring and evaluation capacity, and the ability to bring together the producers and the users of relevant climate information. The report also examines how development co-operation providers can support partner countries in their efforts to monitor and evaluate adaptation.
The CCXG Global Forum, held on 17-18 March 2015 at the OECD, brought together technical negotiators and experts from OECD and non-OECD countries to discuss topics relevant to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. It facilitated a sharing of views on issues in the current negotiations on adaptation, climate support, review processes for mitigation, and long-term signals provided within a climate agreement.
Quantifying the effect of public interventions aimed at mobilising private finance for climate activities is technically complex and challenging. As a step towards addressing this complexity, the report presents a framework of key decision points for estimating publicly mobilised private finance.
The polar bear, floating mournfully away on an ice floe as his habitat melts around him, is perhaps one of the most well-travelled symbols of the impacts of climate change.
This paper identifies over 50 000 patents filed worldwide in water-related adaptation technologies between 1990 and 2010, distinguishing between those related to water availability and water conservation technologies. It also analyses the innovation activity, including inventive activity by country and technology, international collaboration in technology development, and international diffusion of such water-related technologies.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries.